(2013)
Vortex structures in atomic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates.
*University of Southampton, Mathematical Sciences, Doctoral Thesis*, 176pp.

## Abstract

This thesis is concerned with the structure and stability of vortices in spin-1 atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) in rotating, optical traps. We numerically study these vortex structures using a classical mean-field theory which allows atomic interactions to change the local expectation value of the atomic spin. Initially applying a model in which the atoms interact only via scattering which does not conserve an initial longitudinal magnetisation, we identify the energetically stable configurations of singular and nonsingular vortices via propagation in imaginary time in a rotating frame of reference.

We find that the cores of singular vortices fill with atoms in the spinor BEC and show that this can be understood in terms of an energetic hierarchy of length scales. By refining the numerical model to explicitly conserve longitudinal magnetisation, we show that the conservation of a strong magnetisation can lead to a mixing of the two phases of the ground-state manifold (polar and ferromagnetic), which are characterised by the expectation value of the spin. This occurs as a result of the introduction of a new characteristic length scale determined by the longitudinal magnetisation. A surprising consequence is the stability of a ferromagnetic coreless vortex in the polar interaction regime, which otherwise is energetically unstable. We construct analytic spinor wavefunctions which parametrise the interpolation between the polar and ferromagnetic phases, exhibiting different vortex topologies in the respective phases.

Finally by identifying stationary states of the system, we show how nonlocal dipoledipole interactions between atoms introduces an additional length scale determined by the strength of the dipolar interaction. The energetic hierarchy of length scales then determines whether the dipolar interactions have a significant effect on the stationary vortex structures. In particular we show how a BEC with polar interactions adopts the properties of a ferromagnetic condensate when the dipolar interactions dominate.

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- Faculties (pre 2018 reorg) > Faculty of Social, Human and Mathematical Sciences (pre 2018 reorg) > Mathematical Sciences (pre 2018 reorg)

Current Faculties > Faculty of Social Sciences > School of Mathematical Sciences > Mathematical Sciences (pre 2018 reorg)

School of Mathematical Sciences > Mathematical Sciences (pre 2018 reorg)

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