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Kayak blade-hull interactions: a body-force approach for self-propelled simulations

Kayak blade-hull interactions: a body-force approach for self-propelled simulations
Kayak blade-hull interactions: a body-force approach for self-propelled simulations
A sprint kayak experiences an unsteady flow regime due to the local influence of the paddle. However, kayak designs are usually optimised for steady-state, naked hull resistance. To determine whether unsteady paddle effects need to be included in kayak design, the hydrodynamic interactions between a kayak paddle and a hull are assessed using computational fluid dynamics. A body force model of a drag-based paddle stroke is developed using a blade element approach and validated against experimental data. This allows the paddle-induced local velocities to be simulated without the need to fully resolve the detailed flow around a moving paddle geometry. The increase in computational cost, compared to the naked hull simulation, is 8%. A case study investigating the impact of different paddle techniques on the hydrodynamic forces acting on a self-propelled kayak is conducted. A 0.23% difference in self-propelled resistance was observed, while an estimated 0.5% additional increase can be attributed to paddle-induced draught increases. An estimate of small changes in resistance on race times indicates that reductions of even a fraction of a percent are worth pursuing, indicating that the developed methodology may provide a useful design tool in the future.
kayak, paddle, computational fluid dynamics, unsteady flow, paddle-hull interaction, performance
1754-3371
49-60
Banks, Joseph
3e915107-6d17-4097-8e77-99c40c8c053d
Phillips, Alexander B.
f565b1da-6881-4e2a-8729-c082b869028f
Turnock, S.R.
d6442f5c-d9af-4fdb-8406-7c79a92b26ce
Hudson, D.A.
3814e08b-1993-4e78-b5a4-2598c40af8e7
Taunton, D.J.
10bfbe83-c4c2-49c6-94c0-2de8098c648c
Banks, Joseph
3e915107-6d17-4097-8e77-99c40c8c053d
Phillips, Alexander B.
f565b1da-6881-4e2a-8729-c082b869028f
Turnock, S.R.
d6442f5c-d9af-4fdb-8406-7c79a92b26ce
Hudson, D.A.
3814e08b-1993-4e78-b5a4-2598c40af8e7
Taunton, D.J.
10bfbe83-c4c2-49c6-94c0-2de8098c648c

Banks, Joseph, Phillips, Alexander B., Turnock, S.R., Hudson, D.A. and Taunton, D.J. (2014) Kayak blade-hull interactions: a body-force approach for self-propelled simulations. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 228 (1), 49-60. (doi:10.1177/1754337113493847).

Record type: Article

Abstract

A sprint kayak experiences an unsteady flow regime due to the local influence of the paddle. However, kayak designs are usually optimised for steady-state, naked hull resistance. To determine whether unsteady paddle effects need to be included in kayak design, the hydrodynamic interactions between a kayak paddle and a hull are assessed using computational fluid dynamics. A body force model of a drag-based paddle stroke is developed using a blade element approach and validated against experimental data. This allows the paddle-induced local velocities to be simulated without the need to fully resolve the detailed flow around a moving paddle geometry. The increase in computational cost, compared to the naked hull simulation, is 8%. A case study investigating the impact of different paddle techniques on the hydrodynamic forces acting on a self-propelled kayak is conducted. A 0.23% difference in self-propelled resistance was observed, while an estimated 0.5% additional increase can be attributed to paddle-induced draught increases. An estimate of small changes in resistance on race times indicates that reductions of even a fraction of a percent are worth pursuing, indicating that the developed methodology may provide a useful design tool in the future.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: July 2013
Published date: 23 January 2014
Keywords: kayak, paddle, computational fluid dynamics, unsteady flow, paddle-hull interaction, performance
Organisations: National Oceanography Centre, Fluid Structure Interactions Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 358757
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/358757
ISSN: 1754-3371
PURE UUID: 9fb4ea86-9a7b-4c68-aab6-9c0851ca07ad
ORCID for Joseph Banks: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3777-8962
ORCID for Alexander B. Phillips: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3234-8506
ORCID for S.R. Turnock: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-6288-0400
ORCID for D.A. Hudson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2012-6255
ORCID for D.J. Taunton: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6865-089X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 14 Oct 2013 11:22
Last modified: 09 Jan 2022 03:34

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Contributors

Author: Joseph Banks ORCID iD
Author: Alexander B. Phillips ORCID iD
Author: S.R. Turnock ORCID iD
Author: D.A. Hudson ORCID iD
Author: D.J. Taunton ORCID iD

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