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The Belgammel Ram, a Hellenistic-Roman Bronze Proembolion Found off the Coast of Libya: test analysis of function, date and metallurgy, with a digital reference archive

The Belgammel Ram, a Hellenistic-Roman Bronze Proembolion Found off the Coast of Libya: test analysis of function, date and metallurgy, with a digital reference archive
The Belgammel Ram, a Hellenistic-Roman Bronze Proembolion Found off the Coast of Libya: test analysis of function, date and metallurgy, with a digital reference archive


The Belgammel Ram was found off the coast of Libya in 1964, and examined during 2008–9. The following techniques were used: surface non-contact digitizing using a laser scanner, reflectance transformation imaging using polynomial texture mapping and hemi-spherical harmonics, digital photogrammetry with dense surface modelling, structured light optical scanning, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. For internal structure the ram was examined by X-radiography and 3-D X-ray tomography. Metallurgical composition was studied by micro-drilling and subjecting the samples to scanning electron microscope X-ray micro-analysis, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray backscatter. The lead isotope composition was analysed.

The alloy has average percentage composition Cu = 86.9, Sn = 6.3, Pb = 6.6, and Zn = < 0.10. The Belgammel Ram is probably a Hellenistic-Roman proembolion from a small military vessel or tesseraria. The archived data are at the Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Engineering Sciences, Material Data Centre, University of Southampton (muvis@soton.ac.uk).
Bronze ram, Hellenistic-Roman, proembolion, Libya, Fitzwilliam, Belgammel
1057-2414
60-75
Adams, Jonathan R.
fa78e5cd-6e35-4e3e-9de7-31693d0f5d03
Antoniadou, Annita
48cfa4e1-d545-42d7-9a50-b59b65180632
Hunt, Chistopher O.
21200e3e-0eb2-41f2-9c2d-22fcb4a2dee4
Bennett, Paul
d16700d6-bc48-4914-be58-db10a8862adc
Croudace, Ian W.
24deb068-d096-485e-8a23-a32b7a68afaf
Taylor, Rex N.
094be7fd-ef61-4acd-a795-7daba2bc6183
Pearce, Richard B.
7d772b25-3ad0-4909-9a96-3a1a8111bc2f
Earl, Graeme P.
ca91560b-0040-4f78-ac7a-3c3bfe50b214
Flemming, Nicholas C.
98fc904d-bcdd-4671-b3c2-67a279eb92d1
Moggeridge, John
42f37f44-869f-4c7a-949d-30c220caab61
Whiteside, Timothy
efd84206-9a4f-4509-ad94-2cb14ecb9189
Oliver, Kenneth
0ef9f0af-a225-4ec1-b4da-c0c7da9048a8
Parker, Anthony J.
c2cbf363-0f64-424b-ab78-aeb5fddefcdd
Adams, Jonathan R.
fa78e5cd-6e35-4e3e-9de7-31693d0f5d03
Antoniadou, Annita
48cfa4e1-d545-42d7-9a50-b59b65180632
Hunt, Chistopher O.
21200e3e-0eb2-41f2-9c2d-22fcb4a2dee4
Bennett, Paul
d16700d6-bc48-4914-be58-db10a8862adc
Croudace, Ian W.
24deb068-d096-485e-8a23-a32b7a68afaf
Taylor, Rex N.
094be7fd-ef61-4acd-a795-7daba2bc6183
Pearce, Richard B.
7d772b25-3ad0-4909-9a96-3a1a8111bc2f
Earl, Graeme P.
ca91560b-0040-4f78-ac7a-3c3bfe50b214
Flemming, Nicholas C.
98fc904d-bcdd-4671-b3c2-67a279eb92d1
Moggeridge, John
42f37f44-869f-4c7a-949d-30c220caab61
Whiteside, Timothy
efd84206-9a4f-4509-ad94-2cb14ecb9189
Oliver, Kenneth
0ef9f0af-a225-4ec1-b4da-c0c7da9048a8
Parker, Anthony J.
c2cbf363-0f64-424b-ab78-aeb5fddefcdd

Adams, Jonathan R., Antoniadou, Annita, Hunt, Chistopher O., Bennett, Paul, Croudace, Ian W., Taylor, Rex N., Pearce, Richard B., Earl, Graeme P., Flemming, Nicholas C., Moggeridge, John, Whiteside, Timothy, Oliver, Kenneth and Parker, Anthony J. (2012) The Belgammel Ram, a Hellenistic-Roman Bronze Proembolion Found off the Coast of Libya: test analysis of function, date and metallurgy, with a digital reference archive. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 42 (1), 60-75. (doi:10.1111/1095-9270.12001).

Record type: Article

Abstract



The Belgammel Ram was found off the coast of Libya in 1964, and examined during 2008–9. The following techniques were used: surface non-contact digitizing using a laser scanner, reflectance transformation imaging using polynomial texture mapping and hemi-spherical harmonics, digital photogrammetry with dense surface modelling, structured light optical scanning, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. For internal structure the ram was examined by X-radiography and 3-D X-ray tomography. Metallurgical composition was studied by micro-drilling and subjecting the samples to scanning electron microscope X-ray micro-analysis, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray backscatter. The lead isotope composition was analysed.

The alloy has average percentage composition Cu = 86.9, Sn = 6.3, Pb = 6.6, and Zn = < 0.10. The Belgammel Ram is probably a Hellenistic-Roman proembolion from a small military vessel or tesseraria. The archived data are at the Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Engineering Sciences, Material Data Centre, University of Southampton (muvis@soton.ac.uk).

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: March 2012
Keywords: Bronze ram, Hellenistic-Roman, proembolion, Libya, Fitzwilliam, Belgammel
Organisations: Geochemistry, National Oceanography Centre

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 358805
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/358805
ISSN: 1057-2414
PURE UUID: 45d59f52-4f4d-4183-81e9-ef2f4af2f158

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 10 Oct 2013 16:03
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 03:26

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