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Ocean acidification and climate change: advances in ecology and evolution

Ocean acidification and climate change: advances in ecology and evolution
Ocean acidification and climate change: advances in ecology and evolution
Atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] has increased from a pre-industrial level of approximately 280 ppm to approximately 385 ppm, with further increases (700–1000 ppm) anticipated by the end of the twenty-first century [1]. Over the past three decades, changes in [CO2] have increased global average temperatures (approx. 0.2°C decade?1 [2]), with much of the additional energy absorbed by the world's oceans causing a 0.8°C rise in sea surface temperature over the past century. The rapid uptake of heat energy and CO2 by the ocean results in a series of concomitant changes in seawater carbonate chemistry, including reductions in pH and carbonate saturation state, as well as increases in dissolved CO2 and bicarbonate ions [3]: a phenomenon defined as ocean acidification. Time-series and survey measurements [4–6] over the past 20 years have shown that surface ocean pH has reduced by 0.1 pH unit relative to pre-industrial levels, equating to a 26% increase in ocean acidity [3]. Reductions of 0.4–0.5 pH units are projected to occur by the end of the twenty-first century [1] and, while atmospheric [CO2] has consistently fluctuated by 100–200 ppm over the past 800 000 years [7], the recent and anticipated rates of change are unprecedented [8].
ocean acidification, climate change, ecology
0962-8436
20120448
Godbold, J.A.
df6da569-e7ea-43ca-8a95-a563829fb88a
Calosi, P.
35797083-5a1b-4685-b4d1-508ee7aa6f16
Godbold, J.A.
df6da569-e7ea-43ca-8a95-a563829fb88a
Calosi, P.
35797083-5a1b-4685-b4d1-508ee7aa6f16

Godbold, J.A. and Calosi, P. (2013) Ocean acidification and climate change: advances in ecology and evolution. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences, 368 (1627), 20120448. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0448).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] has increased from a pre-industrial level of approximately 280 ppm to approximately 385 ppm, with further increases (700–1000 ppm) anticipated by the end of the twenty-first century [1]. Over the past three decades, changes in [CO2] have increased global average temperatures (approx. 0.2°C decade?1 [2]), with much of the additional energy absorbed by the world's oceans causing a 0.8°C rise in sea surface temperature over the past century. The rapid uptake of heat energy and CO2 by the ocean results in a series of concomitant changes in seawater carbonate chemistry, including reductions in pH and carbonate saturation state, as well as increases in dissolved CO2 and bicarbonate ions [3]: a phenomenon defined as ocean acidification. Time-series and survey measurements [4–6] over the past 20 years have shown that surface ocean pH has reduced by 0.1 pH unit relative to pre-industrial levels, equating to a 26% increase in ocean acidity [3]. Reductions of 0.4–0.5 pH units are projected to occur by the end of the twenty-first century [1] and, while atmospheric [CO2] has consistently fluctuated by 100–200 ppm over the past 800 000 years [7], the recent and anticipated rates of change are unprecedented [8].

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Published date: 26 August 2013
Keywords: ocean acidification, climate change, ecology
Organisations: Ocean and Earth Science

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Local EPrints ID: 359357
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/359357
ISSN: 0962-8436
PURE UUID: 5f0bf455-9124-437b-8bd2-a0e452cd8994
ORCID for J.A. Godbold: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5558-8188

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Date deposited: 28 Oct 2013 14:13
Last modified: 27 Apr 2022 01:56

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Contributors

Author: J.A. Godbold ORCID iD
Author: P. Calosi

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