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Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is association with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants

Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is association with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants
Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is association with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are persistent herpesviruses that have various immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. Both viruses are usually acquired in infancy in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region where childhood vaccines are less effective than in high income settings. To establish whether there is an association between these two observations, we tested the hypothesis that infection with one or both viruses modulate antibody responses to the T-cell independent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the T-cell dependent measles vaccines.

Methodology/Principal Findings: Infection with EBV and CMV was diagnosed by the presence of virus-specific IgM in the peripheral blood or by the presence of IgG at higher levels than that found in umbilical cord blood. Anti-meningococcus IgG and IgM were quantified by ELISA. Anti-measles antibody responses were quantified by haemagglutinin antibody inhibition assay. Infants infected with EBV had reduced IgG and IgM antibody responses to meningococcal polysaccharides and to measles vaccine. Infection with CMV alone predicted no changes in the response to meningococcal polysaccharide. While CMV alone had no discernable effect on the antibody response to measles, the response of infants infected with both CMV and EBV was similar to that of infants infected with neither, suggesting that the effects of CMV infection countered the effects of EBV on measles antibody responses.

Conclusions: The results of this exploratory study indicate that infection with EBV is associated with reduced antibody responses to polysaccharides and to measles vaccine, but suggest that the response to T-cell dependent antigens such as measles haemagglutinin may be restored by infection with CMV.
1932-6203
e14013
Holder, B.
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Miles, D.J.
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Kaye, S.
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Crozier, S.
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Mohammed, N.I.
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Duah, N.O.
73694d02-627d-4fd8-a1c6-13ba6eae567c
Roberts, E.
a070df70-c3a3-4fc5-b442-44a56a77657e
Ojuola, O.
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Palmero, M.S.
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Touray, E.S.
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Waight, P.
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Cotten, M.
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Rowland-Jones, S.
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van der Sande, M.
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Whittle, H.
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Holder, B.
36d302fa-7f14-4025-a7ff-66ba2f5df54f
Miles, D.J.
7a826bc7-614a-4b13-b288-65e0df3eb772
Kaye, S.
8ce6336f-f6f4-4750-a314-0d4a220daaac
Crozier, S.
1f39648f-d527-497f-bb40-319f487a0782
Mohammed, N.I.
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Duah, N.O.
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Roberts, E.
a070df70-c3a3-4fc5-b442-44a56a77657e
Ojuola, O.
e39780a0-1961-454d-9bd9-2f4155fac1ad
Palmero, M.S.
416a1543-71c3-4bdf-b370-98f49c34837b
Touray, E.S.
8aedbf82-aea5-45ca-bdd7-f18624e64df9
Waight, P.
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Cotten, M.
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Rowland-Jones, S.
f7973a28-ddfc-45f5-8545-1201a418837b
van der Sande, M.
d144b420-e5b5-4ff9-889b-189a39090b7c
Whittle, H.
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Holder, B., Miles, D.J., Kaye, S., Crozier, S., Mohammed, N.I., Duah, N.O., Roberts, E., Ojuola, O., Palmero, M.S., Touray, E.S., Waight, P., Cotten, M., Rowland-Jones, S., van der Sande, M. and Whittle, H. (2010) Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is association with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants. PLoS ONE, 5 (11), e14013. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014013). (PMID:21103338)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are persistent herpesviruses that have various immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. Both viruses are usually acquired in infancy in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region where childhood vaccines are less effective than in high income settings. To establish whether there is an association between these two observations, we tested the hypothesis that infection with one or both viruses modulate antibody responses to the T-cell independent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the T-cell dependent measles vaccines.

Methodology/Principal Findings: Infection with EBV and CMV was diagnosed by the presence of virus-specific IgM in the peripheral blood or by the presence of IgG at higher levels than that found in umbilical cord blood. Anti-meningococcus IgG and IgM were quantified by ELISA. Anti-measles antibody responses were quantified by haemagglutinin antibody inhibition assay. Infants infected with EBV had reduced IgG and IgM antibody responses to meningococcal polysaccharides and to measles vaccine. Infection with CMV alone predicted no changes in the response to meningococcal polysaccharide. While CMV alone had no discernable effect on the antibody response to measles, the response of infants infected with both CMV and EBV was similar to that of infants infected with neither, suggesting that the effects of CMV infection countered the effects of EBV on measles antibody responses.

Conclusions: The results of this exploratory study indicate that infection with EBV is associated with reduced antibody responses to polysaccharides and to measles vaccine, but suggest that the response to T-cell dependent antigens such as measles haemagglutinin may be restored by infection with CMV.

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Published date: 17 November 2010
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

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Local EPrints ID: 359444
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/359444
ISSN: 1932-6203
PURE UUID: 55c900e8-7236-4e4d-9f6d-332be0f472e8

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Date deposited: 01 Nov 2013 14:55
Last modified: 02 Dec 2019 20:47

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Contributors

Author: B. Holder
Author: D.J. Miles
Author: S. Kaye
Author: S. Crozier
Author: N.I. Mohammed
Author: N.O. Duah
Author: E. Roberts
Author: O. Ojuola
Author: M.S. Palmero
Author: E.S. Touray
Author: P. Waight
Author: M. Cotten
Author: S. Rowland-Jones
Author: M. van der Sande
Author: H. Whittle

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