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The placental exposome: placental determinants of fetal adiposity and postnatal body composition

The placental exposome: placental determinants of fetal adiposity and postnatal body composition
The placental exposome: placental determinants of fetal adiposity and postnatal body composition
Offspring of obese and diabetic mothers are at increased risk of being born with excess adiposity as a consequence of their intrauterine environment. Excessive fetal fat accretion reflects additional placental nutrient transfer, suggesting an effect of the maternal environment on placental function. High plasma levels of particular nutrients in obese and diabetic mothers are likely to be the important drivers of nutrient transfer to the fetus, resulting in excess fat accretion. However, not all offspring of obese and diabetic mothers are born large for gestational age and the explanation may involve the regulation of placental nutrient transfer required for fetal growth. The placenta integrates maternal and fetal signals across gestation in order to determine nutrient transfer rate. Understanding the nature of these signals and placental responses to them is key to understanding the pathology of both fetal growth restriction and macrosomia. The overall effects of the maternal environment on the placenta are the product of its exposures throughout gestation, the 'placental exposome'. Understanding these environmental influences is important as exposures early in gestation, for instance causing changes in the function of genes involved in nutrient transfer, may determine how the placenta will respond to exposures later in gestation, such as to raised maternal plasma glucose or lipid concentrations. Longitudinal studies are required which allow investigation of the influences on the placenta across gestation. These studies need to make full use of developing technologies characterising placental function, fetal growth and body composition. Understanding these processes will assist in the development of preventive strategies and treatments to optimise prenatal growth in those pregnancies at risk of either excess or insufficient nutrient supply and could also reduce the risk of chronic disease in later life.
0250-6807
208-215
Lewis, R.M.
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Demmelmair, H.
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Gaillard, R.
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Godfrey, K.M.
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Hauguel-de Mouzon, S.
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Huppertz, B.
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Larque, E.
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Saffrey, R.
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Symmonds, M.E.
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Desoye, G.
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Lewis, R.M.
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Demmelmair, H.
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Gaillard, R.
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Godfrey, K.M.
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Hauguel-de Mouzon, S.
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Huppertz, B.
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Larque, E.
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Saffrey, R.
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Symmonds, M.E.
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Desoye, G.
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Lewis, R.M., Demmelmair, H., Gaillard, R., Godfrey, K.M., Hauguel-de Mouzon, S., Huppertz, B., Larque, E., Saffrey, R., Symmonds, M.E. and Desoye, G. (2013) The placental exposome: placental determinants of fetal adiposity and postnatal body composition. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 63 (3), 208-215. (doi:10.1159/000355222). (PMID:24107818)

Record type: Review

Abstract

Offspring of obese and diabetic mothers are at increased risk of being born with excess adiposity as a consequence of their intrauterine environment. Excessive fetal fat accretion reflects additional placental nutrient transfer, suggesting an effect of the maternal environment on placental function. High plasma levels of particular nutrients in obese and diabetic mothers are likely to be the important drivers of nutrient transfer to the fetus, resulting in excess fat accretion. However, not all offspring of obese and diabetic mothers are born large for gestational age and the explanation may involve the regulation of placental nutrient transfer required for fetal growth. The placenta integrates maternal and fetal signals across gestation in order to determine nutrient transfer rate. Understanding the nature of these signals and placental responses to them is key to understanding the pathology of both fetal growth restriction and macrosomia. The overall effects of the maternal environment on the placenta are the product of its exposures throughout gestation, the 'placental exposome'. Understanding these environmental influences is important as exposures early in gestation, for instance causing changes in the function of genes involved in nutrient transfer, may determine how the placenta will respond to exposures later in gestation, such as to raised maternal plasma glucose or lipid concentrations. Longitudinal studies are required which allow investigation of the influences on the placenta across gestation. These studies need to make full use of developing technologies characterising placental function, fetal growth and body composition. Understanding these processes will assist in the development of preventive strategies and treatments to optimise prenatal growth in those pregnancies at risk of either excess or insufficient nutrient supply and could also reduce the risk of chronic disease in later life.

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Placenta Early Nutrition_Workshop review - revised version-1.doc - Author's Original
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e-pub ahead of print date: 8 October 2013
Published date: December 2013
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 359455
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/359455
ISSN: 0250-6807
PURE UUID: 40d814f9-2065-474e-be9d-dc2ec5090b60
ORCID for R.M. Lewis: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4044-9104
ORCID for K.M. Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618

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Date deposited: 04 Nov 2013 13:30
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 16:57

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Contributors

Author: R.M. Lewis ORCID iD
Author: H. Demmelmair
Author: R. Gaillard
Author: K.M. Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: S. Hauguel-de Mouzon
Author: B. Huppertz
Author: E. Larque
Author: R. Saffrey
Author: M.E. Symmonds
Author: G. Desoye

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