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Géoarchéologie du delta du Tibre: evolution géomorphologique holocène et contraintes hydrosédimentaires dans le système Ostie-Portus

Géoarchéologie du delta du Tibre: evolution géomorphologique holocène et contraintes hydrosédimentaires dans le système Ostie-Portus
Géoarchéologie du delta du Tibre: evolution géomorphologique holocène et contraintes hydrosédimentaires dans le système Ostie-Portus
Ostia and Portus are two important harbour cities located on theThyrrenian coast, near the ancient Rome. This location corresponds to a fastly changing landscape (river and coastline mobility). The aim of this study is to reconstruct the Tiber hydrosedimentary dynamics in its delta plain during Ancient times (mainly in the 1st c. BC - 1st c. AD) and to identify their impact on the system Ostia-Portus. To complete this work, we analyse sedimentary cores drilled in the palaeomeander of Ostia and the canals of Portus. These results are compared to the archaeological and historical data.

Crossing sedimentary, archaeological and textual data allows to consider hydrosedimentary anthropoclimatic crisis in the Tiber River watershed, during the period between the second part of the Ist century BC and the beginning of the Ist century AD. This crisis is expressed in Ostia, by: (1) a sediment accumulation at the mouth of the Tiber River, leading to the filling of the river mouth harbour of Ostia; (2) several major floods (at Rome - sometimes torrential floods); and (3) perhaps an increase of the groundwater levels. During this hydrosedimentological crisis or before, a strong lateral mobility of the Tiber mouth and the palaeomeander of Ostia probably affect the development of the city.

Obliged by a strong demographic pressure in Rome and by the socio-economical context, Claude built Portus in the middle of the 1st century AD. Portus is planned with the idea to overcome the shortcomings of Ostia’s harbour: (1) by an increased harbour basin area (200 ha), and (2) by its establishment, 3 km north of the Tiber mouth, to avoid the main hydrosedimentary constraints. For logistical reasons (goods transport to Rome), Portus includes a fluvial canal system, connected to the Tiber River. However, Roman engineers take care to separate the canal system and the harbour basins (sediment load) and some of these canals are considered floodways (flood management). Sedimentary analysis characterise the canal functioning and filling (Canale Traverso, Canale Romano).

This work is complemented by a methodological reflection on the Passega diagram and by a modeling of the Holocene evolution of the Tiber delta’s northern part, based on the analysis of core samples.
Salomon, Ferreol
728f3798-6cd0-45eb-bd09-25ea7159769e
Salomon, Ferreol
728f3798-6cd0-45eb-bd09-25ea7159769e

Salomon, Ferreol (2013) Géoarchéologie du delta du Tibre: evolution géomorphologique holocène et contraintes hydrosédimentaires dans le système Ostie-Portus. Université Lyon 2, Geography, Doctoral Thesis, 662pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Ostia and Portus are two important harbour cities located on theThyrrenian coast, near the ancient Rome. This location corresponds to a fastly changing landscape (river and coastline mobility). The aim of this study is to reconstruct the Tiber hydrosedimentary dynamics in its delta plain during Ancient times (mainly in the 1st c. BC - 1st c. AD) and to identify their impact on the system Ostia-Portus. To complete this work, we analyse sedimentary cores drilled in the palaeomeander of Ostia and the canals of Portus. These results are compared to the archaeological and historical data.

Crossing sedimentary, archaeological and textual data allows to consider hydrosedimentary anthropoclimatic crisis in the Tiber River watershed, during the period between the second part of the Ist century BC and the beginning of the Ist century AD. This crisis is expressed in Ostia, by: (1) a sediment accumulation at the mouth of the Tiber River, leading to the filling of the river mouth harbour of Ostia; (2) several major floods (at Rome - sometimes torrential floods); and (3) perhaps an increase of the groundwater levels. During this hydrosedimentological crisis or before, a strong lateral mobility of the Tiber mouth and the palaeomeander of Ostia probably affect the development of the city.

Obliged by a strong demographic pressure in Rome and by the socio-economical context, Claude built Portus in the middle of the 1st century AD. Portus is planned with the idea to overcome the shortcomings of Ostia’s harbour: (1) by an increased harbour basin area (200 ha), and (2) by its establishment, 3 km north of the Tiber mouth, to avoid the main hydrosedimentary constraints. For logistical reasons (goods transport to Rome), Portus includes a fluvial canal system, connected to the Tiber River. However, Roman engineers take care to separate the canal system and the harbour basins (sediment load) and some of these canals are considered floodways (flood management). Sedimentary analysis characterise the canal functioning and filling (Canale Traverso, Canale Romano).

This work is complemented by a methodological reflection on the Passega diagram and by a modeling of the Holocene evolution of the Tiber delta’s northern part, based on the analysis of core samples.

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Published date: 24 June 2013
Organisations: Archaeology

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 360894
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/360894
PURE UUID: 932e1cae-02be-4feb-8d77-fca8db914691

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 14 Jul 2015 15:58
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 03:09

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