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Off-axis symbiosis found: characterization and biogeography of bacterial symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Lost City hydrothermal vents

Off-axis symbiosis found: characterization and biogeography of bacterial symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Lost City hydrothermal vents
Off-axis symbiosis found: characterization and biogeography of bacterial symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Lost City hydrothermal vents
Organisms at hydrothermal vents inhabit discontinuous chemical ‘islands’ along mid-ocean ridges, a scenario that may promote genetic divergence among populations. The 2003 discovery of mussels at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field provided a means of evaluating factors that govern the biogeography of symbiotic bacteria in the deep sea. The unusual chemical composition of vent fluids, the remote location, and paucity of characteristic vent macrofauna at the site, raised the question of whether microbial symbioses existed at the extraordinary Lost City. If so, how did symbiotic bacteria therein relate to those hosted by invertebrates at the closest known hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR)? To answer these questions, we performed microscopic and molecular analyses on the bacteria found within the gill tissue of Bathymodiolus mussels (Mytilidae, Bathymodiolinae) that were discovered at the Lost City. Here we show that Lost City mussels harbour chemoautotrophic and methanotrophic endosymbionts simultaneously. Furthermore, populations of the chemoautotrophic symbionts from the Lost City and two sites along the MAR are genetically distinct from each other, which suggests spatial isolation of bacteria in the deep sea. These findings provide new insights into the processes that drive diversification of bacteria and evolution of symbioses at hydrothermal vents.
1462-2920
1902-1912
DeChaine, Eric G.
639ff7f0-a082-4061-afd4-f87d8f1e9f38
Bates, Amanda E.
a96e267d-6d22-4232-b7ed-ce4e448a2a34
Shank, Timothy M.
bbd4cc25-0927-47ef-b514-29c8efc598fa
Cavanaugh, Colleen M.
a0dc6a74-5134-4929-87b7-3cf1d3b7f930
DeChaine, Eric G.
639ff7f0-a082-4061-afd4-f87d8f1e9f38
Bates, Amanda E.
a96e267d-6d22-4232-b7ed-ce4e448a2a34
Shank, Timothy M.
bbd4cc25-0927-47ef-b514-29c8efc598fa
Cavanaugh, Colleen M.
a0dc6a74-5134-4929-87b7-3cf1d3b7f930

DeChaine, Eric G., Bates, Amanda E., Shank, Timothy M. and Cavanaugh, Colleen M. (2006) Off-axis symbiosis found: characterization and biogeography of bacterial symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Lost City hydrothermal vents. Environmental Microbiology, 8 (11), 1902-1912. (doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.01113.x).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Organisms at hydrothermal vents inhabit discontinuous chemical ‘islands’ along mid-ocean ridges, a scenario that may promote genetic divergence among populations. The 2003 discovery of mussels at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field provided a means of evaluating factors that govern the biogeography of symbiotic bacteria in the deep sea. The unusual chemical composition of vent fluids, the remote location, and paucity of characteristic vent macrofauna at the site, raised the question of whether microbial symbioses existed at the extraordinary Lost City. If so, how did symbiotic bacteria therein relate to those hosted by invertebrates at the closest known hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR)? To answer these questions, we performed microscopic and molecular analyses on the bacteria found within the gill tissue of Bathymodiolus mussels (Mytilidae, Bathymodiolinae) that were discovered at the Lost City. Here we show that Lost City mussels harbour chemoautotrophic and methanotrophic endosymbionts simultaneously. Furthermore, populations of the chemoautotrophic symbionts from the Lost City and two sites along the MAR are genetically distinct from each other, which suggests spatial isolation of bacteria in the deep sea. These findings provide new insights into the processes that drive diversification of bacteria and evolution of symbioses at hydrothermal vents.

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Published date: November 2006
Organisations: Ocean and Earth Science

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 361244
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/361244
ISSN: 1462-2920
PURE UUID: f8bd4a5a-ed26-4938-bc2c-cb1bf0e61091

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Date deposited: 15 Jan 2014 15:27
Last modified: 08 Jan 2022 15:10

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Contributors

Author: Eric G. DeChaine
Author: Amanda E. Bates
Author: Timothy M. Shank
Author: Colleen M. Cavanaugh

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