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Psychological well-being and incident frailty in men and women: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

Psychological well-being and incident frailty in men and women: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Psychological well-being and incident frailty in men and women: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Background: observations that older people who enjoy life more tend to live longer suggest that psychological well-being may be a potential resource for healthier ageing. We investigated whether psychological well-being was associated with incidence of physical frailty.

Method: we used multinomial logistic regression to examine the prospective relationship between psychological well-being, assessed using the CASP-19, a questionnaire that assesses perceptions of control, autonomy, self-realization and pleasure, and incidence of physical frailty or pre-frailty, defined according to the Fried criteria (unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, slow walking speed and low physical activity), in 2557 men and women aged 60 to ?90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).

Results: men and women with higher levels of psychological well-being were less likely to become frail over the 4-year follow-up period. For a standard deviation higher score in psychological well-being at baseline, the relative risk ratio (RR) for incident frailty, adjusted for age, sex and baseline frailty status, was 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40–0.54]. There was a significant association between psychological well-being and risk of pre-frailty (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63–0.77). Examination of scores for hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (control, autonomy and self-realization) well-being showed that higher scores on both were associated with decreased risk. Associations were partially attenuated by further adjustment for other potential confounding factors but persisted. Incidence of pre-frailty or frailty was associated with a decline in well-being, suggesting that the relationship is bidirectional.

Conclusions: maintaining a stronger sense of psychological well-being in later life may protect against the development of physical frailty. Future research needs to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings
0033-2917
697-706
Gale, C.R.
5bb2abb3-7b53-42d6-8aa7-817e193140c8
Cooper, C.
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Deary, I.J.
e3403cfe-eb5b-4941-903d-87ef0db89c60
Aihie Sayer, A.
fb4c2053-6d51-4fc1-9489-c3cb431b0ffb
Gale, C.R.
5bb2abb3-7b53-42d6-8aa7-817e193140c8
Cooper, C.
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Deary, I.J.
e3403cfe-eb5b-4941-903d-87ef0db89c60
Aihie Sayer, A.
fb4c2053-6d51-4fc1-9489-c3cb431b0ffb

Gale, C.R., Cooper, C., Deary, I.J. and Aihie Sayer, A. (2014) Psychological well-being and incident frailty in men and women: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychological Medicine, 44 (4), 697-706. (doi:10.1017/S0033291713001384). (PMID:23822897)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: observations that older people who enjoy life more tend to live longer suggest that psychological well-being may be a potential resource for healthier ageing. We investigated whether psychological well-being was associated with incidence of physical frailty.

Method: we used multinomial logistic regression to examine the prospective relationship between psychological well-being, assessed using the CASP-19, a questionnaire that assesses perceptions of control, autonomy, self-realization and pleasure, and incidence of physical frailty or pre-frailty, defined according to the Fried criteria (unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, slow walking speed and low physical activity), in 2557 men and women aged 60 to ?90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).

Results: men and women with higher levels of psychological well-being were less likely to become frail over the 4-year follow-up period. For a standard deviation higher score in psychological well-being at baseline, the relative risk ratio (RR) for incident frailty, adjusted for age, sex and baseline frailty status, was 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40–0.54]. There was a significant association between psychological well-being and risk of pre-frailty (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63–0.77). Examination of scores for hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (control, autonomy and self-realization) well-being showed that higher scores on both were associated with decreased risk. Associations were partially attenuated by further adjustment for other potential confounding factors but persisted. Incidence of pre-frailty or frailty was associated with a decline in well-being, suggesting that the relationship is bidirectional.

Conclusions: maintaining a stronger sense of psychological well-being in later life may protect against the development of physical frailty. Future research needs to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings

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Accepted/In Press date: 22 May 2013
e-pub ahead of print date: 3 July 2013
Published date: March 2014
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 362803
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/362803
ISSN: 0033-2917
PURE UUID: 873e3273-7c29-4f26-8ec3-1aa9f2e0532c
ORCID for C.R. Gale: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3361-8638
ORCID for C. Cooper: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3510-0709

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Date deposited: 10 Mar 2014 12:27
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 16:48

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Contributors

Author: C.R. Gale ORCID iD
Author: C. Cooper ORCID iD
Author: I.J. Deary
Author: A. Aihie Sayer

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