The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

The association between self-reported stigma and loss-to-follow up in treatment eligible HIV positive adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

The association between self-reported stigma and loss-to-follow up in treatment eligible HIV positive adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
The association between self-reported stigma and loss-to-follow up in treatment eligible HIV positive adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Background

The relationship between loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) in HIV treatment and care programmes and psychosocial factors, including self-reported stigma, is important to understand. This prospective cohort study explored stigma and LTFU in treatment eligible adults who had yet not started antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Methods

Psychosocial, clinical and demographic data were collected at a baseline interview. Self-reported stigma was measured with a multi-item scale. LTFU was defined as not attending clinic in the 90 days since last appointment or before death. Data was collected between January 2009 and January 2013 and analysed using Cox Regression.

Results

380 individuals were recruited (median time in study 3.35 years, total time at risk 1065.81 person-years). 203 were retained (53.4%), 109 were LTFU (28.7%), 48 had died and were not LTFU at death (12.6%) and 20 had transferred out (5.3%). The LTFU rate was 10.65 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 8.48–12.34). 362 individuals (95.3%) started ART. Stigma total score (categorised in quartiles) was not significantly associated with LTFU in either univariable or multivariable analysis (adjusting for other variables in the final model): second quartile aHR 0.77 (95%CI: 0.41–1.46), third quartile aHR 1.20(95%CI: 0.721–2.04), fourth quartile aHR 0.62 (95%CI: 0.35–1.11). In the final multivariable model, higher LTFU rates were associated with male gender, increased openness with friends/family and believing that community problems would be solved at higher levels. Lower LTFU rates were independently associated with increased year of age, greater reliance on family/friends, and having children.

Conclusions

Demographic and other psychosocial factors were more closely related to LTFU than self-reported stigma. This may be consistent with high levels of social exposure to HIV and ART and with stigma affecting LTFU less than other stages of care. Research and clinical implications are discussed.
1932-6203
e88235
Evangeli, M.
6bb2aa7e-1cd9-4e12-a9ed-ac4be5542160
Newell, M.L.
c6ff99dd-c23b-4fef-a846-a221fe2522b3
Richter, L.
1b3d8141-a6e5-46a5-a0ed-3af79028483b
McGrath, N.
b75c0232-24ec-443f-93a9-69e9e12dc961
Evangeli, M.
6bb2aa7e-1cd9-4e12-a9ed-ac4be5542160
Newell, M.L.
c6ff99dd-c23b-4fef-a846-a221fe2522b3
Richter, L.
1b3d8141-a6e5-46a5-a0ed-3af79028483b
McGrath, N.
b75c0232-24ec-443f-93a9-69e9e12dc961

Evangeli, M., Newell, M.L., Richter, L. and McGrath, N. (2014) The association between self-reported stigma and loss-to-follow up in treatment eligible HIV positive adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. PLoS ONE, 9 (2), e88235. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088235). (PMID:24586310)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background

The relationship between loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) in HIV treatment and care programmes and psychosocial factors, including self-reported stigma, is important to understand. This prospective cohort study explored stigma and LTFU in treatment eligible adults who had yet not started antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Methods

Psychosocial, clinical and demographic data were collected at a baseline interview. Self-reported stigma was measured with a multi-item scale. LTFU was defined as not attending clinic in the 90 days since last appointment or before death. Data was collected between January 2009 and January 2013 and analysed using Cox Regression.

Results

380 individuals were recruited (median time in study 3.35 years, total time at risk 1065.81 person-years). 203 were retained (53.4%), 109 were LTFU (28.7%), 48 had died and were not LTFU at death (12.6%) and 20 had transferred out (5.3%). The LTFU rate was 10.65 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 8.48–12.34). 362 individuals (95.3%) started ART. Stigma total score (categorised in quartiles) was not significantly associated with LTFU in either univariable or multivariable analysis (adjusting for other variables in the final model): second quartile aHR 0.77 (95%CI: 0.41–1.46), third quartile aHR 1.20(95%CI: 0.721–2.04), fourth quartile aHR 0.62 (95%CI: 0.35–1.11). In the final multivariable model, higher LTFU rates were associated with male gender, increased openness with friends/family and believing that community problems would be solved at higher levels. Lower LTFU rates were independently associated with increased year of age, greater reliance on family/friends, and having children.

Conclusions

Demographic and other psychosocial factors were more closely related to LTFU than self-reported stigma. This may be consistent with high levels of social exposure to HIV and ART and with stigma affecting LTFU less than other stages of care. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

Other
fetchObject.action_uri=info_doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0088235&representation=PDF - Version of Record
Available under License Other.
Download (447kB)

More information

Published date: 20 February 2014
Organisations: Primary Care & Population Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 362910
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/362910
ISSN: 1932-6203
PURE UUID: 310a69dc-83e1-41db-98b8-1beced9a8387
ORCID for M.L. Newell: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1074-7699
ORCID for N. McGrath: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1039-0159

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 10 Mar 2014 15:35
Last modified: 24 Sep 2019 00:37

Export record

Altmetrics

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×