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Base oil oxidation detection using novel chemical sensors and impedance spectroscopy measurements

Base oil oxidation detection using novel chemical sensors and impedance spectroscopy measurements
Base oil oxidation detection using novel chemical sensors and impedance spectroscopy measurements
Lubricating oils are employed in machinery to minimise friction, remove heat and wear particles, protect against corrosion, etc. Mineral base oils are derived from natural crude oil through a distillation process and are divided into five main groups depending on volume of sulphur, saturate and viscosity index, according to the American Petroleum Institute (API). As lubricating base oil oxidises, acidic by-products are formed and oil viscosity increases due to progressive polycondensation of higher molecular weight products. In this work, thick film (TF) potentiometric sensors based on ion-selective electrodes (ISE) have been developed for oil acidity measurement to enable online oil condition monitoring. A TF ruthenium oxide (RuO2) working electrode and three types of TF reference electrodes were fabricated and tested in oxidised base oil samples prepared at the Shell Houston laboratories. The TF sensors were evaluated by comparison with acid number (AN) measurement and also compared with oil conductivity measurements using impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the conductivity, viscosity and AN of the oil samples increase with the level of oil oxidisation. The output of the TF sensors detected the acidity increase of the oxidised oil samples at both 50 and 80 °C and displayed a linear relationship with oil AN.
oil oxidation, chemical sensors, thick film sensors, oil condition monitoring, lubricant degradation
0925-4005
247-258
Soleimani, Mostafa
372a386f-ef57-47a8-8f4d-225edd7bf681
Sophocleous, Marios
a49d7a05-0d94-443f-a5c6-507ea8352f7a
Wang, Ling
c50767b1-7474-4094-9b06-4fe64e9fe362
Atkinson, John
5e9729b2-0e1f-400d-a889-c74f6390ea58
Hosier, Ian L.
90b357eb-a19d-4ce0-8c94-cdc4ea83cba9
Vaughan, Alun S.
4e457932-6f10-4732-8de2-02a84a26458a
Taylor, Robert I.
6fd4a731-21e9-4c6d-a98f-bf2a3b1581ed
Wood, Robert J.K.
d9523d31-41a8-459a-8831-70e29ffe8a73
Soleimani, Mostafa
372a386f-ef57-47a8-8f4d-225edd7bf681
Sophocleous, Marios
a49d7a05-0d94-443f-a5c6-507ea8352f7a
Wang, Ling
c50767b1-7474-4094-9b06-4fe64e9fe362
Atkinson, John
5e9729b2-0e1f-400d-a889-c74f6390ea58
Hosier, Ian L.
90b357eb-a19d-4ce0-8c94-cdc4ea83cba9
Vaughan, Alun S.
4e457932-6f10-4732-8de2-02a84a26458a
Taylor, Robert I.
6fd4a731-21e9-4c6d-a98f-bf2a3b1581ed
Wood, Robert J.K.
d9523d31-41a8-459a-8831-70e29ffe8a73

Soleimani, Mostafa, Sophocleous, Marios, Wang, Ling, Atkinson, John, Hosier, Ian L., Vaughan, Alun S., Taylor, Robert I. and Wood, Robert J.K. (2014) Base oil oxidation detection using novel chemical sensors and impedance spectroscopy measurements. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 199, 247-258. (doi:10.1016/j.snb.2014.03.076).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Lubricating oils are employed in machinery to minimise friction, remove heat and wear particles, protect against corrosion, etc. Mineral base oils are derived from natural crude oil through a distillation process and are divided into five main groups depending on volume of sulphur, saturate and viscosity index, according to the American Petroleum Institute (API). As lubricating base oil oxidises, acidic by-products are formed and oil viscosity increases due to progressive polycondensation of higher molecular weight products. In this work, thick film (TF) potentiometric sensors based on ion-selective electrodes (ISE) have been developed for oil acidity measurement to enable online oil condition monitoring. A TF ruthenium oxide (RuO2) working electrode and three types of TF reference electrodes were fabricated and tested in oxidised base oil samples prepared at the Shell Houston laboratories. The TF sensors were evaluated by comparison with acid number (AN) measurement and also compared with oil conductivity measurements using impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the conductivity, viscosity and AN of the oil samples increase with the level of oil oxidisation. The output of the TF sensors detected the acidity increase of the oxidised oil samples at both 50 and 80 °C and displayed a linear relationship with oil AN.

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Accepted/In Press date: 18 March 2014
e-pub ahead of print date: 1 April 2014
Published date: August 2014
Keywords: oil oxidation, chemical sensors, thick film sensors, oil condition monitoring, lubricant degradation
Organisations: nCATS Group

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 365079
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/365079
ISSN: 0925-4005
PURE UUID: e0d1f07c-efc9-4665-8347-bf80633564ea
ORCID for Ling Wang: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2894-6784
ORCID for John Atkinson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3411-8034
ORCID for Robert J.K. Wood: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0681-9239

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Date deposited: 22 May 2014 10:05
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 16:58

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