The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Three essays in international economics

Three essays in international economics
Three essays in international economics
Are transport markets and associated costs important for international trade? To the present day there is a sparse and fragmented literature pointing towards an affirmative answer. This Thesis reinforces such opinion by accounting for transport markets in general equilibrium models of trade, and providing empirical evidence on the impact of determinants that explain casual trade-and-transport related phenomena. The outcomes of the Thesis promote policy and/or investment activism in developing countries, due to the gains from trade lost to excessive transport costs. Two particular observations are investigated:

i) When and why should a transport hub emerge? Using a simple trade model of monopolistic competition with representative firms incorporating network theory, the determinants governing optimal network formation become the level of transport costs, increasing returns in transportation and centrality. Empirical deduction supports that exports increase more on average if a shipping route passing through a hub is selected relative to a direct route, following a reduction in variable trade costs. Thus geographically disadvantaged countries that absorb high transport costs can ameliorate these by trading via a hub.

ii) Are tariffs and shipping prices complementary? By not assuming this interaction, standard trade models of representative and heterogeneous firms are unable to identify by decomposing the direct and indirect -that is, via adjustments in transport technology- effects of trade liberalisation, resulting in observing large elasticities of import demand. Invoking a model of monopolistic competition with heterogeneous firms that trade using transport services operating under increasing returns, it is the presence of the latter that amplifies the response of trade volumes to tariffs declines. Yet transportation may also dampen such responses, for the shipping price is a function of the factory price of the good and a markup. The empirical experiments provide support to such propositions.

The last chapter is distinct and deliberates on the importance of modeling financial networks that represent real world transaction systems relative to abstract artificial topologies. It is found that the international network of financial exposures exhibits characteristics that are congruent with robust-yet-fragile networks. Employing a common model of contagion illustrates how the robust-yet-fragile network structure absorbs defaults by peripheral countries however becomes susceptible to default cascades when combinations of peripheral countries or a financial centre collapse.
Lazarou, Nicholas-Joseph
630683af-83f5-4d54-81d8-320f6cfd0453
Lazarou, Nicholas-Joseph
630683af-83f5-4d54-81d8-320f6cfd0453
Calvo-Pardo, Hector
07a586f0-48ec-4049-932e-fb9fc575f59f
Wahba, Jackline
03ae9304-c329-40c6-9bfc-d91cfa9e7164

Lazarou, Nicholas-Joseph (2014) Three essays in international economics. University of Southampton, Department of Economics, Doctoral Thesis, 178pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Are transport markets and associated costs important for international trade? To the present day there is a sparse and fragmented literature pointing towards an affirmative answer. This Thesis reinforces such opinion by accounting for transport markets in general equilibrium models of trade, and providing empirical evidence on the impact of determinants that explain casual trade-and-transport related phenomena. The outcomes of the Thesis promote policy and/or investment activism in developing countries, due to the gains from trade lost to excessive transport costs. Two particular observations are investigated:

i) When and why should a transport hub emerge? Using a simple trade model of monopolistic competition with representative firms incorporating network theory, the determinants governing optimal network formation become the level of transport costs, increasing returns in transportation and centrality. Empirical deduction supports that exports increase more on average if a shipping route passing through a hub is selected relative to a direct route, following a reduction in variable trade costs. Thus geographically disadvantaged countries that absorb high transport costs can ameliorate these by trading via a hub.

ii) Are tariffs and shipping prices complementary? By not assuming this interaction, standard trade models of representative and heterogeneous firms are unable to identify by decomposing the direct and indirect -that is, via adjustments in transport technology- effects of trade liberalisation, resulting in observing large elasticities of import demand. Invoking a model of monopolistic competition with heterogeneous firms that trade using transport services operating under increasing returns, it is the presence of the latter that amplifies the response of trade volumes to tariffs declines. Yet transportation may also dampen such responses, for the shipping price is a function of the factory price of the good and a markup. The empirical experiments provide support to such propositions.

The last chapter is distinct and deliberates on the importance of modeling financial networks that represent real world transaction systems relative to abstract artificial topologies. It is found that the international network of financial exposures exhibits characteristics that are congruent with robust-yet-fragile networks. Employing a common model of contagion illustrates how the robust-yet-fragile network structure absorbs defaults by peripheral countries however becomes susceptible to default cascades when combinations of peripheral countries or a financial centre collapse.

PDF
Final PhDThesis.pdf - Other
Download (3MB)

More information

Published date: March 2014
Organisations: University of Southampton, Economics

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 365329
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/365329
PURE UUID: f97cd7b9-4697-417c-87f2-bdd35e26033f
ORCID for Hector Calvo-Pardo: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-6645-4273
ORCID for Jackline Wahba: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0002-3443

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 03 Jun 2014 11:42
Last modified: 24 May 2019 00:38

Export record

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×