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New roles for Fc receptors in neurodegeneration-the impact on immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease

New roles for Fc receptors in neurodegeneration-the impact on immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease
New roles for Fc receptors in neurodegeneration-the impact on immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease
There are an estimated 18 million Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers worldwide and with no disease modifying treatment currently available, development of new therapies represents an enormous unmet clinical need. AD is characterized by episodic memory loss followed by severe cognitive decline and is associated with many neuropathological changes. AD is characterized by deposits of amyloid beta (A?), neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation. Active immunization or passive immunization against A? leads to the clearance of deposits in transgenic mice expressing human A?. This clearance is associated with reversal of associated cognitive deficits, but these results have not translated to humans, with both active and passive immunotherapy failing to improve memory loss. One explanation for these observations is that certain anti-A? antibodies mediate damage to the cerebral vasculature limiting the top dose and potentially reducing efficacy. Fc gamma receptors (Fc?R) are a family of immunoglobulin-like receptors which bind to the Fc portion of IgG, and mediate the response of effector cells to immune complexes. Data from both mouse and human studies suggest that cross-linking Fc?R by therapeutic antibodies and the subsequent pro-inflammatory response mediates the vascular side effects seen following immunotherapy. Increasing evidence is emerging that Fc?R expression on CNS resident cells, including microglia and neurons, is increased during aging and functionally involved in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we propose that increased expression and ligation of Fc?R in the CNS, either by endogenous IgG or therapeutic antibodies, has the potential to induce vascular damage and exacerbate neurodegeneration. To produce safe and effective immunotherapies for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases it will be vital to understand the role of Fc?R in the healthy and diseased brain. Here we review the literature on Fc?R expression, function and proposed roles in multiple age-related neurological diseases. Lessons can be learnt from therapeutic antibodies used for the treatment of cancer where antibodies have been engineered for optimal efficacy.
fc receptors, Alzheimer's disease, immunotherapy, neuroinflammation, cytokines, ARIAs, auto-antibodies
1662-4548
Fuller, James P.
15c13e9b-7764-4a1a-879b-893aba7e4201
Stavenhagen, Jeffrey B.
3bbacd92-4aef-4987-a196-cfa46b47664c
Teeling, Jessica L.
fcde1c8e-e5f8-4747-9f3a-6bdb5cd87d0a
Fuller, James P.
15c13e9b-7764-4a1a-879b-893aba7e4201
Stavenhagen, Jeffrey B.
3bbacd92-4aef-4987-a196-cfa46b47664c
Teeling, Jessica L.
fcde1c8e-e5f8-4747-9f3a-6bdb5cd87d0a

Fuller, James P., Stavenhagen, Jeffrey B. and Teeling, Jessica L. (2014) New roles for Fc receptors in neurodegeneration-the impact on immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8. (doi:10.3389/fnins.2014.00235).

Record type: Article

Abstract

There are an estimated 18 million Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers worldwide and with no disease modifying treatment currently available, development of new therapies represents an enormous unmet clinical need. AD is characterized by episodic memory loss followed by severe cognitive decline and is associated with many neuropathological changes. AD is characterized by deposits of amyloid beta (A?), neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation. Active immunization or passive immunization against A? leads to the clearance of deposits in transgenic mice expressing human A?. This clearance is associated with reversal of associated cognitive deficits, but these results have not translated to humans, with both active and passive immunotherapy failing to improve memory loss. One explanation for these observations is that certain anti-A? antibodies mediate damage to the cerebral vasculature limiting the top dose and potentially reducing efficacy. Fc gamma receptors (Fc?R) are a family of immunoglobulin-like receptors which bind to the Fc portion of IgG, and mediate the response of effector cells to immune complexes. Data from both mouse and human studies suggest that cross-linking Fc?R by therapeutic antibodies and the subsequent pro-inflammatory response mediates the vascular side effects seen following immunotherapy. Increasing evidence is emerging that Fc?R expression on CNS resident cells, including microglia and neurons, is increased during aging and functionally involved in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we propose that increased expression and ligation of Fc?R in the CNS, either by endogenous IgG or therapeutic antibodies, has the potential to induce vascular damage and exacerbate neurodegeneration. To produce safe and effective immunotherapies for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases it will be vital to understand the role of Fc?R in the healthy and diseased brain. Here we review the literature on Fc?R expression, function and proposed roles in multiple age-related neurological diseases. Lessons can be learnt from therapeutic antibodies used for the treatment of cancer where antibodies have been engineered for optimal efficacy.

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Published date: 21 August 2014
Keywords: fc receptors, Alzheimer's disease, immunotherapy, neuroinflammation, cytokines, ARIAs, auto-antibodies
Organisations: Centre for Biological Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 369281
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/369281
ISSN: 1662-4548
PURE UUID: e9ddb07d-2112-4d71-b439-b944a685f246
ORCID for Jessica L. Teeling: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4004-7391

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Date deposited: 23 Sep 2014 11:17
Last modified: 10 Dec 2019 01:44

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