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Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution

Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution
Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution
Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years1. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20?per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems2. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space3. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean4. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate that E. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.
0028-0836
209-213
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Read, Betsy A., Kegel, Jessica, Klute, Mary J., Kuo, Alan, Lefebvre, Stephane C., Maumus, Florian, Mayer, Christoph, Miller, John, Monier, Adam, Salamov, Asaf, Young, Jeremy, Aguilar, Maria, Claverie, Jean-Michel, Frickenhaus, Stephan, Gonzalez, Karina, Herman, Emily K., Lin, Yao-Cheng, Napier, Johnathan, Ogata, Hiroyuki, Sarno, Analissa F., Shmutz, Jeremy, Schroeder, Declan, de Vargas, Colomban, Verret, Frederic, von Dassow, Peter, Valentin, Klaus, Van de Peer, Yves, Wheeler, Glen, Allen, Andrew E., Bidle, Kay, Borodovsky, Mark, Bowler, Chris, Brownlee, Colin, Cock, J. Mark, Elias, Marek, Gladyshev, Vadim N., Groth, Marco, Guda, Chittibabu, Hadaegh, Ahmad, Iglesias-Rodriguez, Debora Maria, Jenkins, Jerry, Jones, Bethan M., Lawson, Tracy, Leese, Florian, Lindquist, Erika, Lobanov, Alexei, Lomsadze, Alexandre, Malik, Shehre-Banoo, Marsh, Mary E., Mackinder, Luke, Mock, Thomas, Mueller-Roeber, Bernd, Pagarete, António, Parker, Micaela, Probert, Ian, Quesneville, Hadi, Raines, Christine, Rensing, Stefan A., Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio, Richier, Sophie, Rokitta, Sebastian, Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro, Soanes, Darren M., van der Giezen, Mark, Wahlund, Thomas M., Williams, Bryony, Wilson, Willie, Wolfe, Gordon, Wurch, Louie L., Dacks, Joel B., Delwiche, Charles F., Dyhrman, Sonya T., Glöckner, Gernot, John, Uwe, Richards, Thomas, Worden, Alexandra Z., Zhang, Xiaoyu and Grigoriev, Igor V. (2013) Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution. Nature, 499 (7457), 209-213. (doi:10.1038/nature12221).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years1. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20?per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems2. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space3. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean4. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate that E. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.

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More information

Published date: July 2013
Organisations: Ocean and Earth Science

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 370396
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/370396
ISSN: 0028-0836
PURE UUID: 3e0b7fa1-57fa-429b-b2f7-6facde6793a1

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Date deposited: 22 Oct 2014 15:29
Last modified: 09 Jan 2022 01:13

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Contributors

Author: Betsy A. Read
Author: Jessica Kegel
Author: Mary J. Klute
Author: Alan Kuo
Author: Stephane C. Lefebvre
Author: Florian Maumus
Author: Christoph Mayer
Author: John Miller
Author: Adam Monier
Author: Asaf Salamov
Author: Jeremy Young
Author: Maria Aguilar
Author: Jean-Michel Claverie
Author: Stephan Frickenhaus
Author: Karina Gonzalez
Author: Emily K. Herman
Author: Yao-Cheng Lin
Author: Johnathan Napier
Author: Hiroyuki Ogata
Author: Analissa F. Sarno
Author: Jeremy Shmutz
Author: Declan Schroeder
Author: Colomban de Vargas
Author: Frederic Verret
Author: Peter von Dassow
Author: Klaus Valentin
Author: Yves Van de Peer
Author: Glen Wheeler
Author: Andrew E. Allen
Author: Kay Bidle
Author: Mark Borodovsky
Author: Chris Bowler
Author: Colin Brownlee
Author: J. Mark Cock
Author: Marek Elias
Author: Vadim N. Gladyshev
Author: Marco Groth
Author: Chittibabu Guda
Author: Ahmad Hadaegh
Author: Debora Maria Iglesias-Rodriguez
Author: Jerry Jenkins
Author: Bethan M. Jones
Author: Tracy Lawson
Author: Florian Leese
Author: Erika Lindquist
Author: Alexei Lobanov
Author: Alexandre Lomsadze
Author: Shehre-Banoo Malik
Author: Mary E. Marsh
Author: Luke Mackinder
Author: Thomas Mock
Author: Bernd Mueller-Roeber
Author: António Pagarete
Author: Micaela Parker
Author: Ian Probert
Author: Hadi Quesneville
Author: Christine Raines
Author: Stefan A. Rensing
Author: Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón
Author: Sophie Richier
Author: Sebastian Rokitta
Author: Yoshihiro Shiraiwa
Author: Darren M. Soanes
Author: Mark van der Giezen
Author: Thomas M. Wahlund
Author: Bryony Williams
Author: Willie Wilson
Author: Gordon Wolfe
Author: Louie L. Wurch
Author: Joel B. Dacks
Author: Charles F. Delwiche
Author: Sonya T. Dyhrman
Author: Gernot Glöckner
Author: Uwe John
Author: Thomas Richards
Author: Alexandra Z. Worden
Author: Xiaoyu Zhang
Author: Igor V. Grigoriev

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