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Rate and predictors of psychotic symptoms after Kashmir earthquake

Rate and predictors of psychotic symptoms after Kashmir earthquake
Rate and predictors of psychotic symptoms after Kashmir earthquake


Psychotic symptoms are more common in general population than validated diagnosis of psychosis. There is evidence to suggest that these symptoms, hallucinations, paranoia, elated mood, thought insertion, are part of a spectrum of psychosis and may have association with the same risk factors that determine development of psychosis. These symptoms have an association with exposure to psychological trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the population affected by a natural disaster, earthquake in this case and possible correlates of these symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a population sample affected by the disaster, comprising of 1,291 individuals, 18 months after 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan and Kashmir to look at the prevalence of these symptoms and their correlates. Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors and Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Psychosis Screening Questionnaire were used as tools. We examined association between the symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD and psychotic symptoms. We performed logistic regression analysis where hallucinations and delusions were dependent variables and demographic and trauma exposure variables were independent variables. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms ranged between 16.8 and 30.4 %. They were directly correlated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder as well as concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Lower level of education had a strong association in all the regression models. For hallucinations, living in a joint family had a negative association and participation in rescue, history of exposure to previous trauma and past psychiatric history had positive association. Paranoia was associated with female gender. Any psychiatric symptom was associated death of a family member, history of past psychiatric illness and living in a tent at the time of interview. Pattern of association of psychotic symptoms is consistent with prior literature and can be understood in the light of stress vulnerability model.
natural disasters, developing countries, Pakistan, hallucinations, paranoia, psychological trauma
0940-1334
Ayub, Muhammad
fa9854ec-fc27-40c4-8fb9-d45d8323d6ed
Khalid, Saeed
3bbbc5b3-92ce-4b59-868a-dc21363b1c7c
Kingdon, David
14cdc422-10b4-4b2d-88ec-24fde5f4329b
Farooq, Naeem
b1be4cb9-847d-4c71-8711-c58fcd586500
Ayub, Muhammad
fa9854ec-fc27-40c4-8fb9-d45d8323d6ed
Khalid, Saeed
3bbbc5b3-92ce-4b59-868a-dc21363b1c7c
Kingdon, David
14cdc422-10b4-4b2d-88ec-24fde5f4329b
Farooq, Naeem
b1be4cb9-847d-4c71-8711-c58fcd586500

Ayub, Muhammad, Khalid, Saeed, Kingdon, David and Farooq, Naeem (2014) Rate and predictors of psychotic symptoms after Kashmir earthquake. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. (doi:10.1007/s00406-014-0561-1). (PMID:25421792)

Record type: Article

Abstract



Psychotic symptoms are more common in general population than validated diagnosis of psychosis. There is evidence to suggest that these symptoms, hallucinations, paranoia, elated mood, thought insertion, are part of a spectrum of psychosis and may have association with the same risk factors that determine development of psychosis. These symptoms have an association with exposure to psychological trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the population affected by a natural disaster, earthquake in this case and possible correlates of these symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a population sample affected by the disaster, comprising of 1,291 individuals, 18 months after 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan and Kashmir to look at the prevalence of these symptoms and their correlates. Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors and Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Psychosis Screening Questionnaire were used as tools. We examined association between the symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD and psychotic symptoms. We performed logistic regression analysis where hallucinations and delusions were dependent variables and demographic and trauma exposure variables were independent variables. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms ranged between 16.8 and 30.4 %. They were directly correlated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder as well as concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Lower level of education had a strong association in all the regression models. For hallucinations, living in a joint family had a negative association and participation in rescue, history of exposure to previous trauma and past psychiatric history had positive association. Paranoia was associated with female gender. Any psychiatric symptom was associated death of a family member, history of past psychiatric illness and living in a tent at the time of interview. Pattern of association of psychotic symptoms is consistent with prior literature and can be understood in the light of stress vulnerability model.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 25 November 2014
Keywords: natural disasters, developing countries, Pakistan, hallucinations, paranoia, psychological trauma
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

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Local EPrints ID: 372253
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/372253
ISSN: 0940-1334
PURE UUID: d833dfc4-f561-4350-a97c-6494a125b3d7

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Date deposited: 04 Dec 2014 10:25
Last modified: 15 Jul 2019 21:37

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Contributors

Author: Muhammad Ayub
Author: Saeed Khalid
Author: David Kingdon
Author: Naeem Farooq

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