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Fluorescent protein-mediated colour polymorphism in reef corals: multicopy genes extend the adaptation/acclimatization potential to variable light environments

Fluorescent protein-mediated colour polymorphism in reef corals: multicopy genes extend the adaptation/acclimatization potential to variable light environments
Fluorescent protein-mediated colour polymorphism in reef corals: multicopy genes extend the adaptation/acclimatization potential to variable light environments
The genomic framework that enables corals to adjust to unfavourable conditions is crucial for coral reef survival in a rapidly changing climate. We have explored the striking intraspecific variability in the expression of coral pigments from the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family to elucidate the genomic basis for the plasticity of stress responses among reef corals. We show that multicopy genes can greatly increase the dynamic range over which corals can modulate transcript levels in response to the light environment. Using the red fluorescent protein amilFP597 in the coral Acropora millepora as a model, we demonstrate that its expression increases with light intensity, but both the minimal and maximal gene transcript levels vary markedly among colour morphs. The pigment concentration in the tissue of different morphs is strongly correlated with the number of gene copies with a particular promoter type. These findings indicate that colour polymorphism in reef corals can be caused by the environmentally regulated expression of multicopy genes. High-level expression of amilFP597 is correlated with reduced photodamage of zooxanthellae under acute light stress, supporting a photoprotective function of this pigment. The cluster of light-regulated pigment genes can enable corals to invest either in expensive high-level pigmentation, offering benefits under light stress, or to rely on low tissue pigment concentrations and use the conserved resources for other purposes, which is preferable in less light-exposed environments. The genomic framework described here allows corals to pursue different strategies to succeed in habitats with highly variable light stress levels. In summary, our results suggest that the intraspecific plasticity of reef corals’ stress responses is larger than previously thought.
acclimatization, adaptation, climate change, copy number variation, coral colour, green fluorescent protein, light regulation, multicopy genes, photoprotection, polymorphism, promoter
0962-1083
453-465
Gittins, John R.
c4d269cc-aae0-4182-bc81-78dc724f7d95
D'Angelo, Cecilia
0d35b03b-684d-43aa-a57a-87212ab07ee1
Oswald, Franz
a5b02f2d-8439-411b-b5ad-999629cee58f
Edwards, Richard J.
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Wiedenmann, Jörg
ad445af2-680f-4927-90b3-589ac9d538f7
Gittins, John R.
c4d269cc-aae0-4182-bc81-78dc724f7d95
D'Angelo, Cecilia
0d35b03b-684d-43aa-a57a-87212ab07ee1
Oswald, Franz
a5b02f2d-8439-411b-b5ad-999629cee58f
Edwards, Richard J.
9d25e74f-dc0d-455a-832c-5f363d864c43
Wiedenmann, Jörg
ad445af2-680f-4927-90b3-589ac9d538f7

Gittins, John R., D'Angelo, Cecilia, Oswald, Franz, Edwards, Richard J. and Wiedenmann, Jörg (2015) Fluorescent protein-mediated colour polymorphism in reef corals: multicopy genes extend the adaptation/acclimatization potential to variable light environments. Molecular Ecology, 24 (2), 453-465. (doi:10.1111/mec.13041).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The genomic framework that enables corals to adjust to unfavourable conditions is crucial for coral reef survival in a rapidly changing climate. We have explored the striking intraspecific variability in the expression of coral pigments from the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family to elucidate the genomic basis for the plasticity of stress responses among reef corals. We show that multicopy genes can greatly increase the dynamic range over which corals can modulate transcript levels in response to the light environment. Using the red fluorescent protein amilFP597 in the coral Acropora millepora as a model, we demonstrate that its expression increases with light intensity, but both the minimal and maximal gene transcript levels vary markedly among colour morphs. The pigment concentration in the tissue of different morphs is strongly correlated with the number of gene copies with a particular promoter type. These findings indicate that colour polymorphism in reef corals can be caused by the environmentally regulated expression of multicopy genes. High-level expression of amilFP597 is correlated with reduced photodamage of zooxanthellae under acute light stress, supporting a photoprotective function of this pigment. The cluster of light-regulated pigment genes can enable corals to invest either in expensive high-level pigmentation, offering benefits under light stress, or to rely on low tissue pigment concentrations and use the conserved resources for other purposes, which is preferable in less light-exposed environments. The genomic framework described here allows corals to pursue different strategies to succeed in habitats with highly variable light stress levels. In summary, our results suggest that the intraspecific plasticity of reef corals’ stress responses is larger than previously thought.

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Accepted/In Press date: 9 December 2014
e-pub ahead of print date: 16 January 2015
Published date: 16 January 2015
Keywords: acclimatization, adaptation, climate change, copy number variation, coral colour, green fluorescent protein, light regulation, multicopy genes, photoprotection, polymorphism, promoter
Organisations: Ocean and Earth Science, Molecular and Cellular

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 373451
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/373451
ISSN: 0962-1083
PURE UUID: a449dda7-52a4-49a0-8349-e98d44c95135
ORCID for Jörg Wiedenmann: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-2128-2943

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Date deposited: 19 Jan 2015 09:57
Last modified: 27 Apr 2022 01:50

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Contributors

Author: John R. Gittins
Author: Franz Oswald
Author: Richard J. Edwards

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