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The development of Zn–Ce hybrid redox flow batteries for energy storage and their continuing challenges

The development of Zn–Ce hybrid redox flow batteries for energy storage and their continuing challenges
The development of Zn–Ce hybrid redox flow batteries for energy storage and their continuing challenges
The Zn–Ce flow battery is a recently introduced hybrid redox flow battery (RFB) but has been extensively studied in the laboratory and at the industrial pilot scale since its introduction in 2005. The cell has the highest open-circuit cell potentials amongst aqueous RFBs, which can exceed 2.4 V at full charge. Although original patents were filed in 2004 and 2005, the history of the half-cell reactions stretches back many decades, with the Ce(IV)/Ce(III) redox couple being well studied in sulphuric acid as a redox mediator in organic electrosynthesis or in nitric acid for specialist cleaning in the chemical and nuclear industries; in addition, zinc deposition and stripping in acid media are well known in hydrometallurgy and electroplating of metals as well as in other secondary batteries using zinc negative electrodes. Methanesulfonic acid electrolytes were introduced in surface finishing several decades ago but their use in flow batteries is only 20 years old. This Review considers the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrode reactions (desired and secondary) in each half-cell, operational variables, materials for cell components, cell design and performance of the zinc–cerium flow battery. Continuing challenges are highlighted and critical research needs for the science and technological development are considered.
cerium, electrochemistry, energy storage, redox chemistry, zinc
288-311
Walsh, Frank C.
309528e7-062e-439b-af40-9309bc91efb2
Ponce de Leon, Carlos
508a312e-75ff-4bcb-9151-dacc424d755c
Berlouis, Len
99ccd17b-eb6b-460e-8562-18280a4893b3
Nikiforidis, George
e0a75aff-3b43-41e0-97a8-6a8f6a9339f6
Arenas-Martinez, Luis Fernando
6e7e3d10-2aab-4fc3-a6d4-63a6614d0403
Hodgson, David
070bce7b-8af2-433d-ac48-c54b42bcedd7
Hall, David
5cf4eeb4-5247-4663-bc36-f7792a6c2c04
Walsh, Frank C.
309528e7-062e-439b-af40-9309bc91efb2
Ponce de Leon, Carlos
508a312e-75ff-4bcb-9151-dacc424d755c
Berlouis, Len
99ccd17b-eb6b-460e-8562-18280a4893b3
Nikiforidis, George
e0a75aff-3b43-41e0-97a8-6a8f6a9339f6
Arenas-Martinez, Luis Fernando
6e7e3d10-2aab-4fc3-a6d4-63a6614d0403
Hodgson, David
070bce7b-8af2-433d-ac48-c54b42bcedd7
Hall, David
5cf4eeb4-5247-4663-bc36-f7792a6c2c04

Walsh, Frank C., Ponce de Leon, Carlos, Berlouis, Len, Nikiforidis, George, Arenas-Martinez, Luis Fernando, Hodgson, David and Hall, David (2015) The development of Zn–Ce hybrid redox flow batteries for energy storage and their continuing challenges. [in special issue: Metal-Air and Redox Flow Batteries] ChemPlusChem, 80 (2), 288-311. (doi:10.1002/cplu.201402103).

Record type: Review

Abstract

The Zn–Ce flow battery is a recently introduced hybrid redox flow battery (RFB) but has been extensively studied in the laboratory and at the industrial pilot scale since its introduction in 2005. The cell has the highest open-circuit cell potentials amongst aqueous RFBs, which can exceed 2.4 V at full charge. Although original patents were filed in 2004 and 2005, the history of the half-cell reactions stretches back many decades, with the Ce(IV)/Ce(III) redox couple being well studied in sulphuric acid as a redox mediator in organic electrosynthesis or in nitric acid for specialist cleaning in the chemical and nuclear industries; in addition, zinc deposition and stripping in acid media are well known in hydrometallurgy and electroplating of metals as well as in other secondary batteries using zinc negative electrodes. Methanesulfonic acid electrolytes were introduced in surface finishing several decades ago but their use in flow batteries is only 20 years old. This Review considers the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrode reactions (desired and secondary) in each half-cell, operational variables, materials for cell components, cell design and performance of the zinc–cerium flow battery. Continuing challenges are highlighted and critical research needs for the science and technological development are considered.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 13 November 2014
Published date: February 2015
Keywords: cerium, electrochemistry, energy storage, redox chemistry, zinc
Organisations: Engineering Science Unit

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 373749
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/373749
PURE UUID: 41dc6566-6333-4838-b122-5e9ac136ceaf
ORCID for Carlos Ponce de Leon: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1907-5913

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 30 Jan 2015 12:24
Last modified: 05 Nov 2019 01:48

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