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Limited exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a systematic review

Limited exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a systematic review
Limited exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a systematic review
Background: Vitamin D can be synthesised following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), ingested in the diet or provided through oral supplementation. The medical literature frequently states that humans obtain most of their vitamin D from sunshine and that UVR exposure is essential to maintain vitamin D levels.

Objective: A systematic review was conducted to determine the requirement for UVR in maintaining adequate (>50nmol/L) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels.

Method: Studies reporting serum 25OHD during situations of negligible UVR exposure were sought. 41 studies (from a search yielding 42,698 articles) totalling 4, 211 healthy adults met the inclusion criteria, providing 56 datasets from different population groups.

Results: Over 50% of subjects had >50nmol/L 25OHD in 10 of 19 datasets reporting winter levels in areas with limited UVR. In addition, >50% of subjects had adequate 25OHD levels in 4 of 12 datasets from polar regions during periods of negligible UVR, 1 of 9 datasets documenting clothing related minimal UVR and 2 of 8 datasets detailing employment related minimal UVR.

Conclusion: The data demonstrate that many adults maintain adequate serum vitamin D levels despite negligible UVR exposure for several months. However, we acknowledge that preceding UVR exposure leading to vitamin D storage and delayed release may account for this maintenance of adequate serum vitamin D levels. There remains a need for further research on whether UVR exposure is required for longer-term maintenance of adequate vitamin D levels.
0007-0963
652-661
Rice, S.A.
7733572d-1916-4cad-b156-2ea9bd45d80d
Carpenter, M.
95e32912-53a2-44ec-ac82-5010b96dd7f0
Fityan, A.
76dc1f06-faf9-4676-abf4-c81de5eb3b4c
Vearncombe, L.M.
2bef7ce5-e7c5-462d-bb51-ea10284f621c
Ardern-Jones, M.
7ac43c24-94ab-4d19-ba69-afaa546bec90
Jackson, A.A.
c9a12d7c-b4d6-4c92-820e-890a688379ef
Cooper, C.
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Baird, J.
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824
Healy, E.
400fc04d-f81a-474a-ae25-7ff894be0ebd
Rice, S.A.
7733572d-1916-4cad-b156-2ea9bd45d80d
Carpenter, M.
95e32912-53a2-44ec-ac82-5010b96dd7f0
Fityan, A.
76dc1f06-faf9-4676-abf4-c81de5eb3b4c
Vearncombe, L.M.
2bef7ce5-e7c5-462d-bb51-ea10284f621c
Ardern-Jones, M.
7ac43c24-94ab-4d19-ba69-afaa546bec90
Jackson, A.A.
c9a12d7c-b4d6-4c92-820e-890a688379ef
Cooper, C.
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Baird, J.
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824
Healy, E.
400fc04d-f81a-474a-ae25-7ff894be0ebd

Rice, S.A., Carpenter, M., Fityan, A., Vearncombe, L.M., Ardern-Jones, M., Jackson, A.A., Cooper, C., Baird, J. and Healy, E. (2015) Limited exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a systematic review. British Journal of Dermatology, 172 (3), 652-661. (doi:10.1111/bjd.13575). (PMID:25646772)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D can be synthesised following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), ingested in the diet or provided through oral supplementation. The medical literature frequently states that humans obtain most of their vitamin D from sunshine and that UVR exposure is essential to maintain vitamin D levels.

Objective: A systematic review was conducted to determine the requirement for UVR in maintaining adequate (>50nmol/L) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels.

Method: Studies reporting serum 25OHD during situations of negligible UVR exposure were sought. 41 studies (from a search yielding 42,698 articles) totalling 4, 211 healthy adults met the inclusion criteria, providing 56 datasets from different population groups.

Results: Over 50% of subjects had >50nmol/L 25OHD in 10 of 19 datasets reporting winter levels in areas with limited UVR. In addition, >50% of subjects had adequate 25OHD levels in 4 of 12 datasets from polar regions during periods of negligible UVR, 1 of 9 datasets documenting clothing related minimal UVR and 2 of 8 datasets detailing employment related minimal UVR.

Conclusion: The data demonstrate that many adults maintain adequate serum vitamin D levels despite negligible UVR exposure for several months. However, we acknowledge that preceding UVR exposure leading to vitamin D storage and delayed release may account for this maintenance of adequate serum vitamin D levels. There remains a need for further research on whether UVR exposure is required for longer-term maintenance of adequate vitamin D levels.

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Accepted/In Press date: 4 August 2014
e-pub ahead of print date: 3 February 2015
Published date: 16 March 2015
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 373880
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/373880
ISSN: 0007-0963
PURE UUID: 1e06cc8b-c9c0-49c9-9dbf-600ee0e62bc8
ORCID for C. Cooper: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3510-0709
ORCID for J. Baird: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4039-4361

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Date deposited: 29 Jan 2015 14:31
Last modified: 18 Feb 2020 01:28

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Contributors

Author: S.A. Rice
Author: M. Carpenter
Author: A. Fityan
Author: L.M. Vearncombe
Author: M. Ardern-Jones
Author: A.A. Jackson
Author: C. Cooper ORCID iD
Author: J. Baird ORCID iD
Author: E. Healy

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