The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance

Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance
Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance
Inflammation is a condition which contributes to a range of human diseases. It involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators, and interactions. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n ? 3) fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to partly inhibit a number of aspects of inflammation including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte–endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n ? 6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines, and T-helper 1 lymphocyte reactivity. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of marine n ? 3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked, although the full extent of this is not yet elucidated. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from marine n ? 3 fatty acids in models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in RA demonstrate benefit, but clinical trials of fish oil in IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.
inflammation, eicosanoid, cytokine, resolving, macrophage, lymphocyte
1388-1981
469-484
Calder, Philip C.
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Calder, Philip C.
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6

Calder, Philip C. (2015) Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1851 (4), 469-484. (doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.08.010). (PMID:25149823)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Inflammation is a condition which contributes to a range of human diseases. It involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators, and interactions. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n ? 3) fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to partly inhibit a number of aspects of inflammation including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte–endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n ? 6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines, and T-helper 1 lymphocyte reactivity. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of marine n ? 3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked, although the full extent of this is not yet elucidated. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from marine n ? 3 fatty acids in models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in RA demonstrate benefit, but clinical trials of fish oil in IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance”.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Accepted/In Press date: 13 August 2014
e-pub ahead of print date: 20 August 2014
Published date: April 2015
Keywords: inflammation, eicosanoid, cytokine, resolving, macrophage, lymphocyte
Organisations: Human Development & Health

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 374667
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/374667
ISSN: 1388-1981
PURE UUID: 99162b15-e81f-4bc0-a632-2f052d97233f

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 26 Feb 2015 12:04
Last modified: 15 Jul 2019 21:28

Export record

Altmetrics

Contributors

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×