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Adherence-adjusted estimates of benefits and harms from treatment with amoxicillin for LRTI: secondary analysis of a 12-country randomised placebo-controlled trial using randomisation-based efficacy estimators

Adherence-adjusted estimates of benefits and harms from treatment with amoxicillin for LRTI: secondary analysis of a 12-country randomised placebo-controlled trial using randomisation-based efficacy estimators
Adherence-adjusted estimates of benefits and harms from treatment with amoxicillin for LRTI: secondary analysis of a 12-country randomised placebo-controlled trial using randomisation-based efficacy estimators
Objectives

Estimate the efficacy of amoxicillin for acute uncomplicated lower-respiratory-tract infection (LRTI) in primary care and demonstrate the use of randomisation-based efficacy estimators.

Design

Secondary analysis of a two-arm individually-randomised placebo-controlled trial.

Setting

Primary care practices in 12 European countries.

Participants

Patients aged 18 or older consulting with an acute LRTI in whom pneumonia was not suspected by the clinician.

Interventions

Amoxicillin (two 500?mg tablets three times a day for 7?days) or matched placebo.

Main outcome measures

Clinician-rated symptom severity between days 2–4; new/worsening symptoms and presence of side effects at 4-weeks. Adherence was captured using self-report and tablet counts.

Results

2061 participants were randomised to the amoxicillin or placebo group. On average, 88% of the prescribed amoxicillin was taken. The original analysis demonstrated small increases in both benefits and harms from amoxicillin. Minor improvements in the benefits of amoxicillin were observed when an adjustments for adherence were made (mean difference in symptom severity ?0.08, 95% CI ?0.17 to 0.01, OR for new/worsening symptoms 0.81, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.98) as well as minor increases in harms (OR for side effects 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.57).

Conclusions

Adherence to amoxicillin was high, and the findings from the original analysis were robust to non-adherence. Participants consulting to primary care with an acute uncomplicated LRTI can on average expect minor improvements in outcome from taking amoxicillin. However, they are also at an increased risk of experiencing side effects.

Trial registration numbers

Eudract-CT 2007-001586-15 and ISRCTN52261229.

The trial was registered at EudraCT in 2007 due to an administrative misunderstanding that EudraCT was a suitable registry—which it was not in 2007, but has become since. On discovery of this error, the trial was also registered at ISRCTN (January 2009). Trial procedures did not change between the two registrations.
e006160-e006160
Gillespie, D.
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Hood, K.
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Farewell, D.
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Butler, C.C.
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Verheij, T.
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Goossens, H.
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Stuart, B.
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Mullee, M.
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Little, P.
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Gillespie, D.
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Hood, K.
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Farewell, D.
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Butler, C.C.
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Verheij, T.
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Goossens, H.
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Stuart, B.
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Mullee, M.
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Little, P.
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Gillespie, D., Hood, K., Farewell, D., Butler, C.C., Verheij, T., Goossens, H., Stuart, B., Mullee, M. and Little, P. (2015) Adherence-adjusted estimates of benefits and harms from treatment with amoxicillin for LRTI: secondary analysis of a 12-country randomised placebo-controlled trial using randomisation-based efficacy estimators. BMJ Open, 5 (3), e006160-e006160. (doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006160). (PMID:25748415)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Objectives

Estimate the efficacy of amoxicillin for acute uncomplicated lower-respiratory-tract infection (LRTI) in primary care and demonstrate the use of randomisation-based efficacy estimators.

Design

Secondary analysis of a two-arm individually-randomised placebo-controlled trial.

Setting

Primary care practices in 12 European countries.

Participants

Patients aged 18 or older consulting with an acute LRTI in whom pneumonia was not suspected by the clinician.

Interventions

Amoxicillin (two 500?mg tablets three times a day for 7?days) or matched placebo.

Main outcome measures

Clinician-rated symptom severity between days 2–4; new/worsening symptoms and presence of side effects at 4-weeks. Adherence was captured using self-report and tablet counts.

Results

2061 participants were randomised to the amoxicillin or placebo group. On average, 88% of the prescribed amoxicillin was taken. The original analysis demonstrated small increases in both benefits and harms from amoxicillin. Minor improvements in the benefits of amoxicillin were observed when an adjustments for adherence were made (mean difference in symptom severity ?0.08, 95% CI ?0.17 to 0.01, OR for new/worsening symptoms 0.81, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.98) as well as minor increases in harms (OR for side effects 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.57).

Conclusions

Adherence to amoxicillin was high, and the findings from the original analysis were robust to non-adherence. Participants consulting to primary care with an acute uncomplicated LRTI can on average expect minor improvements in outcome from taking amoxicillin. However, they are also at an increased risk of experiencing side effects.

Trial registration numbers

Eudract-CT 2007-001586-15 and ISRCTN52261229.

The trial was registered at EudraCT in 2007 due to an administrative misunderstanding that EudraCT was a suitable registry—which it was not in 2007, but has become since. On discovery of this error, the trial was also registered at ISRCTN (January 2009). Trial procedures did not change between the two registrations.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 28 January 2015
Published date: 2015
Organisations: Social Sciences, Primary Care & Population Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 375555
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/375555
PURE UUID: a6c4eaa1-4f19-4409-8fc6-6326491c9acb

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 27 Mar 2015 14:42
Last modified: 20 Nov 2021 20:19

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Contributors

Author: D. Gillespie
Author: K. Hood
Author: D. Farewell
Author: C.C. Butler
Author: T. Verheij
Author: H. Goossens
Author: B. Stuart
Author: M. Mullee
Author: P. Little

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