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Mitochondrial genomes reveal the extinct Hippidion as an outgroup to all living equids

Mitochondrial genomes reveal the extinct Hippidion as an outgroup to all living equids
Mitochondrial genomes reveal the extinct Hippidion as an outgroup to all living equids
Hippidions were equids with very distinctive anatomical features. They lived in South America 2.5 million years ago (Ma) until their extinction approximately 10 000 years ago. The evolutionary origin of the three known Hippidion morphospecies is still disputed. Based on palaeontological data, Hippidion could have diverged from the lineage leading to modern equids before 10 Ma. In contrast, a much later divergence date, with Hippidion nesting within modern equids, was indicated by partial ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences. Here, we characterized eight Hippidion complete mitochondrial genomes at 3.4–386.3-fold coverage using target-enrichment capture and next-generation sequencing. Our dataset reveals that the two morphospecies sequenced (H. saldiasi and H. principale) formed a monophyletic clade, basal to extant and extinct Equus lineages. This contrasts with previous genetic analyses and supports Hippidion as a distinct genus, in agreement with palaeontological models. We date the Hippidion split from Equus at 5.6–6.5 Ma, suggesting an early divergence in North America prior to the colonization of South America, after the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus 3.5 Ma and the Great American Biotic Interchange.
ancient dna, hippidion, mitochondrial genomes, great american biotic interchange
1744-9561
20141058-[5pp]
Der Sarkissian, Clio
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Vilstrup, Julia
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Schubert, Mikkel
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Seguin-Orlando, Andaine
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Eme, David
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Weinstock, Jacobo
edcdb255-f6d0-4a66-8c47-28b70d79896e
Alberdi, Maria Teresa
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Martin, Fabiana
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Lopez, Patricio
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Prado, Jose Luis
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Prieto, Alfredo
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Douady, Christophe
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Stafford, Tom
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Willerslev, Eske
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Orlando, Ludovic
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Der Sarkissian, Clio
6ac7bda2-d31b-409d-b499-00bd16e5e2ce
Vilstrup, Julia
66f5cd97-2838-4527-b3a0-5116a0293dcc
Schubert, Mikkel
c2b4dc25-f240-4a07-9441-432a599802eb
Seguin-Orlando, Andaine
ca0e2e57-2f05-4a84-985e-c5f84b0b7a6b
Eme, David
aa6b8ec1-16e0-4201-805f-f29e23507fa6
Weinstock, Jacobo
edcdb255-f6d0-4a66-8c47-28b70d79896e
Alberdi, Maria Teresa
8eae0b1c-2fa5-4e03-a292-ab1086be82f2
Martin, Fabiana
b2602e66-1174-4d57-974d-5aff6374a683
Lopez, Patricio
cdf702bb-0a73-4b8b-9137-fe9c7db9f150
Prado, Jose Luis
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Prieto, Alfredo
d9b41fb2-a78e-44f4-8327-526c4f450e70
Douady, Christophe
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Stafford, Tom
12e6235b-14a8-4774-ba2d-fe9bab0ec06d
Willerslev, Eske
dda1ac87-224b-43a3-a72c-225a8bccafdb
Orlando, Ludovic
849684d2-1cdc-49c0-9581-00d3e90ed398

Der Sarkissian, Clio, Vilstrup, Julia, Schubert, Mikkel, Seguin-Orlando, Andaine, Eme, David, Weinstock, Jacobo, Alberdi, Maria Teresa, Martin, Fabiana, Lopez, Patricio, Prado, Jose Luis, Prieto, Alfredo, Douady, Christophe, Stafford, Tom, Willerslev, Eske and Orlando, Ludovic (2015) Mitochondrial genomes reveal the extinct Hippidion as an outgroup to all living equids. Biology Letters, 11 (3), 20141058-[5pp]. (doi:10.1098/rsbl.2014.1058).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Hippidions were equids with very distinctive anatomical features. They lived in South America 2.5 million years ago (Ma) until their extinction approximately 10 000 years ago. The evolutionary origin of the three known Hippidion morphospecies is still disputed. Based on palaeontological data, Hippidion could have diverged from the lineage leading to modern equids before 10 Ma. In contrast, a much later divergence date, with Hippidion nesting within modern equids, was indicated by partial ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences. Here, we characterized eight Hippidion complete mitochondrial genomes at 3.4–386.3-fold coverage using target-enrichment capture and next-generation sequencing. Our dataset reveals that the two morphospecies sequenced (H. saldiasi and H. principale) formed a monophyletic clade, basal to extant and extinct Equus lineages. This contrasts with previous genetic analyses and supports Hippidion as a distinct genus, in agreement with palaeontological models. We date the Hippidion split from Equus at 5.6–6.5 Ma, suggesting an early divergence in North America prior to the colonization of South America, after the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus 3.5 Ma and the Great American Biotic Interchange.

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Accepted/In Press date: 11 February 2015
Published date: 11 March 2015
Keywords: ancient dna, hippidion, mitochondrial genomes, great american biotic interchange
Organisations: Archaeology

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Local EPrints ID: 376510
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/376510
ISSN: 1744-9561
PURE UUID: d301b812-4cee-4af4-9e46-2e8ac4142699

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Date deposited: 05 May 2015 09:32
Last modified: 14 Aug 2019 18:37

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Contributors

Author: Clio Der Sarkissian
Author: Julia Vilstrup
Author: Mikkel Schubert
Author: Andaine Seguin-Orlando
Author: David Eme
Author: Maria Teresa Alberdi
Author: Fabiana Martin
Author: Patricio Lopez
Author: Jose Luis Prado
Author: Alfredo Prieto
Author: Christophe Douady
Author: Tom Stafford
Author: Eske Willerslev
Author: Ludovic Orlando

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