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Do little embryos make big decisions? How maternal dietary protein restriction can permanently change an embryo.

Do little embryos make big decisions? How maternal dietary protein restriction can permanently change an embryo.
Do little embryos make big decisions? How maternal dietary protein restriction can permanently change an embryo.
Periconceptional environment may influence embryo development, ultimately affecting adult health. Here, we review the rodent model of maternal low-protein diet specifically during the preimplantation period (Emb-LPD) with normal nutrition during subsequent gestation and postnatally. This model, studied mainly in the mouse, leads to cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural disease in adult offspring, with females more susceptible. We evaluate the sequence of events from diet administration that may lead to adult disease. Emb-LPD changes maternal serum and/or uterine fluid metabolite composition, notably with reduced insulin and branched-chain amino acids. This is sensed by blastocysts through reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signalling. Embryos respond by permanently changing the pattern of development of their extra-embryonic lineages, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm, to enhance maternal nutrient retrieval during subsequent gestation. These compensatory changes include stimulation in proliferation, endocytosis and cellular motility, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying them are being identified. Collectively, these responses act to protect fetal growth and likely contribute to offspring competitive fitness. However, the resulting growth adversely affects long-term health because perinatal weight positively correlates with adult disease risk. We argue that periconception environmental responses reflect developmental plasticity and 'decisions' made by embryos to optimise their own development, but with lasting consequences.
1031-3613
684-692
Fleming, Tom P.
2abf761a-e5a1-4fa7-a2c8-12e32d5d4c03
Watkins, Adam J.
2d535c61-2df0-4410-a1b4-3aa1be5a43bb
Sun, Congshan
19650d2f-f387-444d-9874-1621763fcfd9
Velazquez, Miguel A.
0cb33ae4-eff7-445a-97a5-62a6daf71154
Smyth, Neil
0eba2a40-3b43-4d40-bb64-621bd7e9d505
Eckert, Judith J
729bfa49-7053-458d-8e84-3e70e4d98e57
Fleming, Tom P.
2abf761a-e5a1-4fa7-a2c8-12e32d5d4c03
Watkins, Adam J.
2d535c61-2df0-4410-a1b4-3aa1be5a43bb
Sun, Congshan
19650d2f-f387-444d-9874-1621763fcfd9
Velazquez, Miguel A.
0cb33ae4-eff7-445a-97a5-62a6daf71154
Smyth, Neil
0eba2a40-3b43-4d40-bb64-621bd7e9d505
Eckert, Judith J
729bfa49-7053-458d-8e84-3e70e4d98e57

Fleming, Tom P., Watkins, Adam J., Sun, Congshan, Velazquez, Miguel A., Smyth, Neil and Eckert, Judith J (2015) Do little embryos make big decisions? How maternal dietary protein restriction can permanently change an embryo. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 27 (4), 684-692. (doi:10.1071/RD14455). (PMID:25730413)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Periconceptional environment may influence embryo development, ultimately affecting adult health. Here, we review the rodent model of maternal low-protein diet specifically during the preimplantation period (Emb-LPD) with normal nutrition during subsequent gestation and postnatally. This model, studied mainly in the mouse, leads to cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural disease in adult offspring, with females more susceptible. We evaluate the sequence of events from diet administration that may lead to adult disease. Emb-LPD changes maternal serum and/or uterine fluid metabolite composition, notably with reduced insulin and branched-chain amino acids. This is sensed by blastocysts through reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signalling. Embryos respond by permanently changing the pattern of development of their extra-embryonic lineages, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm, to enhance maternal nutrient retrieval during subsequent gestation. These compensatory changes include stimulation in proliferation, endocytosis and cellular motility, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying them are being identified. Collectively, these responses act to protect fetal growth and likely contribute to offspring competitive fitness. However, the resulting growth adversely affects long-term health because perinatal weight positively correlates with adult disease risk. We argue that periconception environmental responses reflect developmental plasticity and 'decisions' made by embryos to optimise their own development, but with lasting consequences.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 3 February 2015
Published date: 3 March 2015
Organisations: Biomedicine, Human Development & Health

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 377223
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/377223
ISSN: 1031-3613
PURE UUID: 1a737142-4d9f-4330-ba4f-2f02ca1f62f4

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 08 Jun 2015 08:45
Last modified: 15 Jul 2019 21:19

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