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Fluensulfone is a nematicide with a mode of action distinct from anticholinesterases and macrocyclic lactones

Fluensulfone is a nematicide with a mode of action distinct from anticholinesterases and macrocyclic lactones
Fluensulfone is a nematicide with a mode of action distinct from anticholinesterases and macrocyclic lactones
Plant parasitic nematodes infest crops and present a threat to food security worldwide. Currently available chemical controls e.g. methyl bromide, organophosphates and carbamates have an unacceptable level of toxicity to non-target organisms and are being withdrawn from use. Fluensulfone is a new nematicide of the fluoroalkenyl thioether group that has significantly reduced environmental impact with low toxicity to non-target insects and mammals. Here, we show that the model genetic organism Caenorhabditis elegans is susceptible to the irreversible nematicidal effects of fluensulfone. Whilst the dose required is higher than that which has nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne spp. the profile of effects on motility, egg-hatching and survival is similar to that reported for plant parasitic nematodes. C. elegans thus provides a tractable experimental paradigm to analyse the effects of fluensulfone on nematode behaviour. We find that fluensulfone has pleiotropic actions and inhibits development, egg-laying, egg-hatching, feeding and locomotion. In the case of feeding and locomotion, an early excitation precedes the gross inhibition. The profile of these effects is notably distinct from other classes of anthelmintic and nematicide: the inhibition of motility caused by fluensulfone is not accompanied by the hypercontraction which is characteristic of organophosphates and carbamates and C. elegans mutants that are resistant to the carbamate aldicarb and the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin retain susceptibility to fluensulfone. These data indicate fluensulfone's mode of action is distinct from currently available nematicides and it therefore presents a promising new chemical entity for crop protection.
nematode, parasitic, caenorhabditis elegans, behaviour, electrophysiology, plant
0048-3575
44-57
Kearn, James
e4e24d21-8adc-4eef-8874-c70070c78f0f
Ludlow, Elizabeth
d36f59c5-2901-4bf4-a2b4-490dcbec7667
Dillon, James
f406e30a-3ad4-4a53-80db-6694bab5e3ed
O'Connor, Vincent
8021b06c-01a0-4925-9dde-a61c8fe278ca
Holden-Dye, Lindy
8032bf60-5db6-40cb-b71c-ddda9d212c8e
Kearn, James
e4e24d21-8adc-4eef-8874-c70070c78f0f
Ludlow, Elizabeth
d36f59c5-2901-4bf4-a2b4-490dcbec7667
Dillon, James
f406e30a-3ad4-4a53-80db-6694bab5e3ed
O'Connor, Vincent
8021b06c-01a0-4925-9dde-a61c8fe278ca
Holden-Dye, Lindy
8032bf60-5db6-40cb-b71c-ddda9d212c8e

Kearn, James, Ludlow, Elizabeth, Dillon, James, O'Connor, Vincent and Holden-Dye, Lindy (2014) Fluensulfone is a nematicide with a mode of action distinct from anticholinesterases and macrocyclic lactones. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 109, 44-57. (doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.01.004). (PMID:24581383)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Plant parasitic nematodes infest crops and present a threat to food security worldwide. Currently available chemical controls e.g. methyl bromide, organophosphates and carbamates have an unacceptable level of toxicity to non-target organisms and are being withdrawn from use. Fluensulfone is a new nematicide of the fluoroalkenyl thioether group that has significantly reduced environmental impact with low toxicity to non-target insects and mammals. Here, we show that the model genetic organism Caenorhabditis elegans is susceptible to the irreversible nematicidal effects of fluensulfone. Whilst the dose required is higher than that which has nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne spp. the profile of effects on motility, egg-hatching and survival is similar to that reported for plant parasitic nematodes. C. elegans thus provides a tractable experimental paradigm to analyse the effects of fluensulfone on nematode behaviour. We find that fluensulfone has pleiotropic actions and inhibits development, egg-laying, egg-hatching, feeding and locomotion. In the case of feeding and locomotion, an early excitation precedes the gross inhibition. The profile of these effects is notably distinct from other classes of anthelmintic and nematicide: the inhibition of motility caused by fluensulfone is not accompanied by the hypercontraction which is characteristic of organophosphates and carbamates and C. elegans mutants that are resistant to the carbamate aldicarb and the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin retain susceptibility to fluensulfone. These data indicate fluensulfone's mode of action is distinct from currently available nematicides and it therefore presents a promising new chemical entity for crop protection.

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Accepted/In Press date: 22 January 2014
e-pub ahead of print date: 31 January 2014
Keywords: nematode, parasitic, caenorhabditis elegans, behaviour, electrophysiology, plant
Organisations: Biomedicine, Centre for Biological Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 377233
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/377233
ISSN: 0048-3575
PURE UUID: 12a1380c-cbb7-429a-a3bd-00f67daadac4
ORCID for Lindy Holden-Dye: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9704-1217

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Date deposited: 09 Jun 2015 13:51
Last modified: 19 Nov 2019 02:04

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