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Effect of caloric restriction with or without n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity in obese subjects: a randomized placebo controlled trial

Effect of caloric restriction with or without n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity in obese subjects: a randomized placebo controlled trial
Effect of caloric restriction with or without n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity in obese subjects: a randomized placebo controlled trial
Background

Caloric restriction and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation protect from some of the metabolic complications. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a low calorie diet with or without n-3 PUFA supplementation on glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) output and insulin sensitivity markers in obese subjects.

Methods

Obese, non-diabetic subjects (BMI 30–40 kg/m2 and aged 25–65 yr.) were put on low calorie diet (1200–1500 kcal/day) supplemented with either 1.8 g/day n-3 PUFA (DHA/EPA, 5:1) (n = 24) or placebo capsules (n = 24) for three months in a randomized placebo controlled trial. Insulin resistance markers and GIP levels were analysed from samples obtained at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Results

Caloric restriction with n-3 PUFA led to a decrease of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and a significant reduction of insulin output as well as decreased GIP secretion during the OGTT. These effects were not seen with caloric restriction alone. Changes in GIP output were inversely associated with changes in red blood cell EPA content whereas fasting GIP level positively correlated with HOMA-IR index. Blood triglyceride level was lowered by caloric restriction with a greater effect when n-3 PUFA were included and correlated positively with fasting GIP level.

Conclusions

Three months of caloric restriction with DHA + EPA supplementation exerts beneficial effects on insulin resistance, GIP and triglycerides.

General significance

Combining caloric restriction and n-3 PUFA improves insulin sensitivity, which may be related to a decrease of GIP levels.

Abbreviations

AUC, area under curve; BMI, body mass index; DHA, docosapentaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; GIP, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide; IGI, insulinogenic index; NEFA, non esterified fatty acids; OGIS, oral glucose insulin sensitivity index; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; PC, phosphatidylcholine; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosapentaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, caloric restriction, insulin resistance, obesity
2214-6474
1-7
Razny, Urszula
7b576d00-5e72-418b-b5d2-a66ae33073be
Kiec-Wilk, Beata
e8a551fc-6869-4352-9f46-767bec996672
Polus, Anna
fcdf785f-2bd8-49df-a730-9f4947ae346e
Goralska, Joanna
bd4304da-9764-41b6-8efe-3a345f3b30bf
Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata
93850285-b239-4be6-a7fa-2fc9dab4282e
Wnek, Dominika
376aff24-377e-4b39-84fa-f61862517f81
Zdzienicka, Anna
e2667940-eb86-4d1a-a08c-c4c9adb4adf5
Gruca, Anna
f0d32c08-6053-4779-b567-485c6f47e2bb
Childs, Caroline E.
ea17ccc1-2eac-4f67-96c7-a0c4d9dfd9c5
Kapusta, Maria
3f8b0ecf-42e9-4991-8ad6-8cce979cc2d7
Slowinska-Solnica, Krystyna
4ef4d3c2-c631-4005-97ea-2d97bad791c7
Calder, Philip C.
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona
d8cb624c-6be8-4a1f-ba48-4fc129283b02
Razny, Urszula
7b576d00-5e72-418b-b5d2-a66ae33073be
Kiec-Wilk, Beata
e8a551fc-6869-4352-9f46-767bec996672
Polus, Anna
fcdf785f-2bd8-49df-a730-9f4947ae346e
Goralska, Joanna
bd4304da-9764-41b6-8efe-3a345f3b30bf
Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata
93850285-b239-4be6-a7fa-2fc9dab4282e
Wnek, Dominika
376aff24-377e-4b39-84fa-f61862517f81
Zdzienicka, Anna
e2667940-eb86-4d1a-a08c-c4c9adb4adf5
Gruca, Anna
f0d32c08-6053-4779-b567-485c6f47e2bb
Childs, Caroline E.
ea17ccc1-2eac-4f67-96c7-a0c4d9dfd9c5
Kapusta, Maria
3f8b0ecf-42e9-4991-8ad6-8cce979cc2d7
Slowinska-Solnica, Krystyna
4ef4d3c2-c631-4005-97ea-2d97bad791c7
Calder, Philip C.
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona
d8cb624c-6be8-4a1f-ba48-4fc129283b02

Razny, Urszula, Kiec-Wilk, Beata, Polus, Anna, Goralska, Joanna, Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata, Wnek, Dominika, Zdzienicka, Anna, Gruca, Anna, Childs, Caroline E., Kapusta, Maria, Slowinska-Solnica, Krystyna, Calder, Philip C. and Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona (2015) Effect of caloric restriction with or without n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity in obese subjects: a randomized placebo controlled trial. BBA Clinical, 1-7. (doi:10.1016/j.bbacli.2015.05.001).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background

Caloric restriction and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation protect from some of the metabolic complications. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a low calorie diet with or without n-3 PUFA supplementation on glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) output and insulin sensitivity markers in obese subjects.

Methods

Obese, non-diabetic subjects (BMI 30–40 kg/m2 and aged 25–65 yr.) were put on low calorie diet (1200–1500 kcal/day) supplemented with either 1.8 g/day n-3 PUFA (DHA/EPA, 5:1) (n = 24) or placebo capsules (n = 24) for three months in a randomized placebo controlled trial. Insulin resistance markers and GIP levels were analysed from samples obtained at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Results

Caloric restriction with n-3 PUFA led to a decrease of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and a significant reduction of insulin output as well as decreased GIP secretion during the OGTT. These effects were not seen with caloric restriction alone. Changes in GIP output were inversely associated with changes in red blood cell EPA content whereas fasting GIP level positively correlated with HOMA-IR index. Blood triglyceride level was lowered by caloric restriction with a greater effect when n-3 PUFA were included and correlated positively with fasting GIP level.

Conclusions

Three months of caloric restriction with DHA + EPA supplementation exerts beneficial effects on insulin resistance, GIP and triglycerides.

General significance

Combining caloric restriction and n-3 PUFA improves insulin sensitivity, which may be related to a decrease of GIP levels.

Abbreviations

AUC, area under curve; BMI, body mass index; DHA, docosapentaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; GIP, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide; IGI, insulinogenic index; NEFA, non esterified fatty acids; OGIS, oral glucose insulin sensitivity index; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; PC, phosphatidylcholine; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 18 May 2015
e-pub ahead of print date: 22 May 2015
Keywords: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosapentaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, caloric restriction, insulin resistance, obesity
Organisations: NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Human Development & Health

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 377449
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/377449
ISSN: 2214-6474
PURE UUID: 3c359c68-bf13-4bfc-8bab-cd575598b1c3
ORCID for Caroline E. Childs: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-6832-224X
ORCID for Philip C. Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 27 May 2015 14:50
Last modified: 11 Mar 2021 02:35

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Contributors

Author: Urszula Razny
Author: Beata Kiec-Wilk
Author: Anna Polus
Author: Joanna Goralska
Author: Malgorzata Malczewska-Malec
Author: Dominika Wnek
Author: Anna Zdzienicka
Author: Anna Gruca
Author: Maria Kapusta
Author: Krystyna Slowinska-Solnica
Author: Aldona Dembinska-Kiec

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