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Geographic patterns of diversification and the latitudinal gradient of richness of rocky intertidal gastropods: the ‘into the tropical museum’ hypothesis

Geographic patterns of diversification and the latitudinal gradient of richness of rocky intertidal gastropods: the ‘into the tropical museum’ hypothesis
Geographic patterns of diversification and the latitudinal gradient of richness of rocky intertidal gastropods: the ‘into the tropical museum’ hypothesis
Aim
To evaluate the existence of a latitudinal gradient of richness (LGR) in rocky intertidal gastropods and the role of evolutionary processes in shaping the LGR.

Location
The entire eastern Pacific coast, from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, encompassing ca. 120° latitude.

Methods
The LGR was assessed using field surveys and a comprehensive literature dataset from 308 rocky intertidal sites, representing 328 species and 159 genera. The importance of geographic patterns of diversification in shaping the LGR was assessed using three complementary approaches. First, we used the fossil record to evaluate the region of origination of genera (tropical vs. extra-tropical). Secondly, we used a nestedness analysis to compare present-day biogeographic distributions of genera with their region of origin. Finally, we evaluated the importance of biogeographic dynamics for shaping the LGR using a projection matrix and estimating transition probabilities among different biogeographic states.

Results
Eastern Pacific rocky intertidal gastropods follow the canonical latitudinal gradient of richness (higher richness in the tropics). Originations were similar in the tropics and extra-tropics, a pattern that was robust to geographic differences in fossil sampling. The biogeographic distribution of genera was significantly nested, irrespective of the region of origin of genera. The distribution dynamics model accurately reproduced the LGR and showed that key-transitions are low extinction in the tropics and high dispersal of taxa from the extra-tropics to the tropics.

Conclusions
The existence of a canonical LGR in rocky intertidal gastropods can be explained by the combined effect of reduced extinction rates in the tropics and the range expansion of taxa from the extra-tropics toward the tropics, in what we have called the ‘into the tropical museum’ hypothesis.
Biodiversity, dispersal, diversification dynamics, extinction, fossil record, origination
1466-822X
1149-1158
Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.
68afee2d-6288-4fbc-be7f-305c190a79c6
Alballay, Alex H.
347888a1-c605-48b3-86e1-c5b4e1a34f48
Villafaña, Jaime A.
5638d8fc-234d-439e-9ec9-95794a0686f0
Raimondi, Peter T.
c5a4d55e-b300-4bac-a4ce-79be59a81c94
Blanchette, Carol A.
5f9481e0-56e0-4463-84a5-65432a2a2492
Fenberg, Phillip B.
c73918cd-98cc-41e6-a18c-bf0de4f1ace8
Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.
68afee2d-6288-4fbc-be7f-305c190a79c6
Alballay, Alex H.
347888a1-c605-48b3-86e1-c5b4e1a34f48
Villafaña, Jaime A.
5638d8fc-234d-439e-9ec9-95794a0686f0
Raimondi, Peter T.
c5a4d55e-b300-4bac-a4ce-79be59a81c94
Blanchette, Carol A.
5f9481e0-56e0-4463-84a5-65432a2a2492
Fenberg, Phillip B.
c73918cd-98cc-41e6-a18c-bf0de4f1ace8

Rivadeneira, Marcelo M., Alballay, Alex H., Villafaña, Jaime A., Raimondi, Peter T., Blanchette, Carol A. and Fenberg, Phillip B. (2015) Geographic patterns of diversification and the latitudinal gradient of richness of rocky intertidal gastropods: the ‘into the tropical museum’ hypothesis. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 24 (10), 1149-1158. (doi:10.1111/geb.12328).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Aim
To evaluate the existence of a latitudinal gradient of richness (LGR) in rocky intertidal gastropods and the role of evolutionary processes in shaping the LGR.

Location
The entire eastern Pacific coast, from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, encompassing ca. 120° latitude.

Methods
The LGR was assessed using field surveys and a comprehensive literature dataset from 308 rocky intertidal sites, representing 328 species and 159 genera. The importance of geographic patterns of diversification in shaping the LGR was assessed using three complementary approaches. First, we used the fossil record to evaluate the region of origination of genera (tropical vs. extra-tropical). Secondly, we used a nestedness analysis to compare present-day biogeographic distributions of genera with their region of origin. Finally, we evaluated the importance of biogeographic dynamics for shaping the LGR using a projection matrix and estimating transition probabilities among different biogeographic states.

Results
Eastern Pacific rocky intertidal gastropods follow the canonical latitudinal gradient of richness (higher richness in the tropics). Originations were similar in the tropics and extra-tropics, a pattern that was robust to geographic differences in fossil sampling. The biogeographic distribution of genera was significantly nested, irrespective of the region of origin of genera. The distribution dynamics model accurately reproduced the LGR and showed that key-transitions are low extinction in the tropics and high dispersal of taxa from the extra-tropics to the tropics.

Conclusions
The existence of a canonical LGR in rocky intertidal gastropods can be explained by the combined effect of reduced extinction rates in the tropics and the range expansion of taxa from the extra-tropics toward the tropics, in what we have called the ‘into the tropical museum’ hypothesis.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 25 May 2015
Published date: October 2015
Keywords: Biodiversity, dispersal, diversification dynamics, extinction, fossil record, origination
Organisations: Ocean and Earth Science

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 377450
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/377450
ISSN: 1466-822X
PURE UUID: 8f4c29f9-88a7-44fc-9aa9-a35b9851520a

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 26 May 2015 12:31
Last modified: 08 Jan 2022 00:38

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Contributors

Author: Marcelo M. Rivadeneira
Author: Alex H. Alballay
Author: Jaime A. Villafaña
Author: Peter T. Raimondi
Author: Carol A. Blanchette

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