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DNA from historical and trophy samples provides insights into white shark population origins and genetic diversity

DNA from historical and trophy samples provides insights into white shark population origins and genetic diversity
DNA from historical and trophy samples provides insights into white shark population origins and genetic diversity
ABSTRACT: Characterizing genetic variation by retrospective genotyping of trophy or historical artifacts from endangered species is an important conservation tool. Loss of genetic diversity in top predators such as the white shark Carcharodon carcharias remains an issue, exacerbated in this species by declining, sometimes isolated philopatric populations. We successfully sequenced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop from osteodentine of contemporary South African white shark teeth (from 3 jaws), and from 34 to 129 yr old dried cartilage and skin samples from 1 Pacific Ocean and 5 Mediterranean sharks. Osteodentine-derived sequences from South African fish matched those derived from an individual’s finclips, but were generally of poorer quality than those from skin and cartilage of historical samples. Three haplotypes were identified from historical Mediterranean samples (n = 5); 2 individuals had unique sequences and 3 shared the contemporary Mediterranean haplotype. Placement of previously undescribed mtDNA haplotypes from historical material within both the Mediterranean and Pacific clades fits with the accepted intra-specific phylogeny derived from contemporary material, verifying our approaches. The utility of our methodology is in its provision of additional genetic resources from osteodentine (for species lacking tooth pulp) and cartilage of rare and endangered species held in often uncurated, contemporary and historical dry collections. Such material can usefully supplement estimates of connectivity, population history, and stock viability. We confirm the depauperate haplotype diversity of historical Mediterranean sharks, consistent with founding by a small number of Pacific colonizers. The consequent lack of diversity suggests serious challenges for the maintenance of this top predator and the Mediterranean ecosystem.
Teeth, White shark, Carcharodon carcharias, Museum specimens, Mitochondrial DNA, Genotyping, Mediterranean, Cartilage, Osteodentine
1863-5407
233-241
Gubili, C.
226e91df-15a6-4639-b753-bdf7a1477051
Robinson, C.E.C.
e0f11bc2-6d7a-4a05-8583-becfa31ce437
Cliff, G.
6b6d8dac-5785-48eb-a20d-d05f8d8f334e
Wintner, S.P.
f4eb9ddf-3410-4829-a589-08344aeea0b7
de Sabata, E.
61db62df-b897-40f6-9376-673636599d0a
De Innocentiis, S.
3151642d-5571-46bf-8028-65d37722b2b3
Canese, S.
7afeac06-59e9-48a8-9974-3b70519d5fec
Sims, D.W.
7234b444-25e2-4bd5-8348-a1c142d0cf81
Martin, A.P.
2b50c92a-7383-49bc-9d40-9b64df431148
Noble, L.R.
5485f8aa-45ae-462f-9b70-5558dec5771e
Jones, C.S.
4ba61f28-b12b-44f2-851d-ec3a06c6cab0
Gubili, C.
226e91df-15a6-4639-b753-bdf7a1477051
Robinson, C.E.C.
e0f11bc2-6d7a-4a05-8583-becfa31ce437
Cliff, G.
6b6d8dac-5785-48eb-a20d-d05f8d8f334e
Wintner, S.P.
f4eb9ddf-3410-4829-a589-08344aeea0b7
de Sabata, E.
61db62df-b897-40f6-9376-673636599d0a
De Innocentiis, S.
3151642d-5571-46bf-8028-65d37722b2b3
Canese, S.
7afeac06-59e9-48a8-9974-3b70519d5fec
Sims, D.W.
7234b444-25e2-4bd5-8348-a1c142d0cf81
Martin, A.P.
2b50c92a-7383-49bc-9d40-9b64df431148
Noble, L.R.
5485f8aa-45ae-462f-9b70-5558dec5771e
Jones, C.S.
4ba61f28-b12b-44f2-851d-ec3a06c6cab0

Gubili, C., Robinson, C.E.C., Cliff, G., Wintner, S.P., de Sabata, E., De Innocentiis, S., Canese, S., Sims, D.W., Martin, A.P., Noble, L.R. and Jones, C.S. (2015) DNA from historical and trophy samples provides insights into white shark population origins and genetic diversity. Endangered Species Research, 27 (3), 233-241. (doi:10.3354/esr00665).

Record type: Article

Abstract

ABSTRACT: Characterizing genetic variation by retrospective genotyping of trophy or historical artifacts from endangered species is an important conservation tool. Loss of genetic diversity in top predators such as the white shark Carcharodon carcharias remains an issue, exacerbated in this species by declining, sometimes isolated philopatric populations. We successfully sequenced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop from osteodentine of contemporary South African white shark teeth (from 3 jaws), and from 34 to 129 yr old dried cartilage and skin samples from 1 Pacific Ocean and 5 Mediterranean sharks. Osteodentine-derived sequences from South African fish matched those derived from an individual’s finclips, but were generally of poorer quality than those from skin and cartilage of historical samples. Three haplotypes were identified from historical Mediterranean samples (n = 5); 2 individuals had unique sequences and 3 shared the contemporary Mediterranean haplotype. Placement of previously undescribed mtDNA haplotypes from historical material within both the Mediterranean and Pacific clades fits with the accepted intra-specific phylogeny derived from contemporary material, verifying our approaches. The utility of our methodology is in its provision of additional genetic resources from osteodentine (for species lacking tooth pulp) and cartilage of rare and endangered species held in often uncurated, contemporary and historical dry collections. Such material can usefully supplement estimates of connectivity, population history, and stock viability. We confirm the depauperate haplotype diversity of historical Mediterranean sharks, consistent with founding by a small number of Pacific colonizers. The consequent lack of diversity suggests serious challenges for the maintenance of this top predator and the Mediterranean ecosystem.

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More information

Published date: 2015
Keywords: Teeth, White shark, Carcharodon carcharias, Museum specimens, Mitochondrial DNA, Genotyping, Mediterranean, Cartilage, Osteodentine
Organisations: Ocean and Earth Science

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 377711
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/377711
ISSN: 1863-5407
PURE UUID: 0e454ba2-d342-499f-bb3f-1521b89a231a

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Date deposited: 03 Jun 2015 10:47
Last modified: 09 Jan 2022 02:20

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Contributors

Author: C. Gubili
Author: C.E.C. Robinson
Author: G. Cliff
Author: S.P. Wintner
Author: E. de Sabata
Author: S. De Innocentiis
Author: S. Canese
Author: D.W. Sims
Author: A.P. Martin
Author: L.R. Noble
Author: C.S. Jones

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