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Exploring the relationship between maternal iron status and offspring's blood pressure and adiposity: a Mendelian randomization study

Exploring the relationship between maternal iron status and offspring's blood pressure and adiposity: a Mendelian randomization study
Exploring the relationship between maternal iron status and offspring's blood pressure and adiposity: a Mendelian randomization study
Background: iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Experimental animal studies suggest that mothers deficient in iron during pregnancy are more likely to have offspring who become obese with high blood pressure. C282Y mutation carriers are more likely to have higher iron stores.

Methods: we undertook an instrumental variable (IV) analysis, using maternal C282Y as an indicator for the mother’s iron status, to examine its association with offspring blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI), and compared the results to that of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Offspring of a sub-cohort of mothers from the UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS) were recruited in 2009–2010 (n = 348, mean age = 41 years). Their blood pressure, height, and weight were measured at their local general medical practice, and they were asked to self-measure their waist circumference. About half were offspring of C282Y carriers. Maternal ferritin was used as a biomarker of maternal iron status.

Results: maternal C282Y was strongly associated with maternal ferritin (mean difference per allele = 84 g/L, 95% confidence interval: 31–137, P = 0.002). Using IV analyses, maternal ferritin was not linked to offspring’s BP, BMI, or WC. The first stage F-statistic for the strength of the instrument was 10 (Kleibergen–Paap rk LM P = 0.009). Maternal ferritin was linked to offspring diastolic BP, WC, and BMI in univariable, but not in multivariable OLS analysis. There was no difference between the OLS and the IV models coefficients for any of the outcomes considered.

Conclusion: we found no association between maternal iron status and adult offspring’s BP and adiposity using both multivariable OLS and IV modeling. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining this relationship. Further exploration in larger studies that have genetic variation assessed in both mother and offspring should be considered
iron, pregnancy, developmental origins, Mendelian randomization
1179-1349
193-200
Alwan, Nisreen
0d37b320-f325-4ed3-ba51-0fe2866d5382
Lawlor, D.
7ea6d16f-9cb9-4665-9e95-c08639a71645
McArdle, H.
9330e021-25bf-4258-a34d-4fa7b0234395
Greenwood, D.
1550ab9d-53ad-4f22-ab13-20bcd69c90d8
Cade, J.
aa69a0d4-625a-4e0c-af44-d6394d504619
Alwan, Nisreen
0d37b320-f325-4ed3-ba51-0fe2866d5382
Lawlor, D.
7ea6d16f-9cb9-4665-9e95-c08639a71645
McArdle, H.
9330e021-25bf-4258-a34d-4fa7b0234395
Greenwood, D.
1550ab9d-53ad-4f22-ab13-20bcd69c90d8
Cade, J.
aa69a0d4-625a-4e0c-af44-d6394d504619

Alwan, Nisreen, Lawlor, D., McArdle, H., Greenwood, D. and Cade, J. (2012) Exploring the relationship between maternal iron status and offspring's blood pressure and adiposity: a Mendelian randomization study. Clinical Epidemiology, 4, 193-200.

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Experimental animal studies suggest that mothers deficient in iron during pregnancy are more likely to have offspring who become obese with high blood pressure. C282Y mutation carriers are more likely to have higher iron stores.

Methods: we undertook an instrumental variable (IV) analysis, using maternal C282Y as an indicator for the mother’s iron status, to examine its association with offspring blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI), and compared the results to that of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Offspring of a sub-cohort of mothers from the UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS) were recruited in 2009–2010 (n = 348, mean age = 41 years). Their blood pressure, height, and weight were measured at their local general medical practice, and they were asked to self-measure their waist circumference. About half were offspring of C282Y carriers. Maternal ferritin was used as a biomarker of maternal iron status.

Results: maternal C282Y was strongly associated with maternal ferritin (mean difference per allele = 84 g/L, 95% confidence interval: 31–137, P = 0.002). Using IV analyses, maternal ferritin was not linked to offspring’s BP, BMI, or WC. The first stage F-statistic for the strength of the instrument was 10 (Kleibergen–Paap rk LM P = 0.009). Maternal ferritin was linked to offspring diastolic BP, WC, and BMI in univariable, but not in multivariable OLS analysis. There was no difference between the OLS and the IV models coefficients for any of the outcomes considered.

Conclusion: we found no association between maternal iron status and adult offspring’s BP and adiposity using both multivariable OLS and IV modeling. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining this relationship. Further exploration in larger studies that have genetic variation assessed in both mother and offspring should be considered

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Published date: 9 August 2012
Keywords: iron, pregnancy, developmental origins, Mendelian randomization
Organisations: Primary Care & Population Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 377784
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/377784
ISSN: 1179-1349
PURE UUID: 155bf39d-3d55-46ab-af04-1c67d7b09ba9
ORCID for Nisreen Alwan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4134-8463

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Date deposited: 05 Jun 2015 11:08
Last modified: 06 Jun 2018 12:21

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Contributors

Author: Nisreen Alwan ORCID iD
Author: D. Lawlor
Author: H. McArdle
Author: D. Greenwood
Author: J. Cade

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