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Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon

Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon
Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon
High electron doping of germanium (Ge) is considered to be an important process to convert Ge into an optical gain material and realize a monolithic light source integrated on a silicon chip. Spin-on doping is a method that offers the potential to achieve high doping concentrations without affecting crystalline qualities over other methods such as ion implantation and in-situ doping during material growth. However, a standard spin-on doping recipe satisfying these requirements is not yet available. In this paper we examine spin-on doping of Ge-on-insulator (GOI) wafers. Several issues were identified during the spin-on doping process and specifically the adhesion between Ge and the oxide, surface oxidation during activation, and the stress created in the layers due to annealing. In order to mitigate these problems, Ge disks were first patterned by dry etching followed by spin-on doping. Even by using this method to reduce the stress, local peeling of Ge could still be identified by optical microscope imaging. Nevertheless, most of the Ge disks remained after the removal of the glass. According to the Raman data, we could not identify broadening of the lineshape which shows a good crystalline quality, while the stress is slightly relaxed. We also determined the linear increase of the photoluminescence intensity by increasing the optical pumping power for the doped sample, which implies a direct population and recombination at the gamma valley.
0021-4922
1-6
Al-Attili, Abdelrahman
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Kako, Satoshi
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Husain, Muhammad
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Gardes, Frederic
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Arimoto, Hideo
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Higashitarumizu, Naoki
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Iwamoto, Satoshi
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Arakawa, Yasuhiko
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Ishikawa, Yasuhiko
e969492d-8143-4aca-9f9c-af4de65b7377
Saito, Shinichi
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Al-Attili, Abdelrahman
534a1c1f-3f8c-4a78-b71b-50c156e23373
Kako, Satoshi
f69c5167-7bf1-49de-bcf2-ce9257d77e4c
Husain, Muhammad
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Gardes, Frederic
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Arimoto, Hideo
b88aab51-ad62-4127-9ca5-d86e3d714531
Higashitarumizu, Naoki
745b7d3e-e723-4fc5-9cf0-b763a8d216d6
Iwamoto, Satoshi
b2b6caf6-235f-4e92-b1a8-e15d09dd3e25
Arakawa, Yasuhiko
3000500d-1c3d-4d03-911c-b59c8b4f7c75
Ishikawa, Yasuhiko
e969492d-8143-4aca-9f9c-af4de65b7377
Saito, Shinichi
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Al-Attili, Abdelrahman, Kako, Satoshi, Husain, Muhammad, Gardes, Frederic, Arimoto, Hideo, Higashitarumizu, Naoki, Iwamoto, Satoshi, Arakawa, Yasuhiko, Ishikawa, Yasuhiko and Saito, Shinichi (2015) Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 54 (5), 1-6. (doi:10.7567/JJAP.54.052101).

Record type: Article

Abstract

High electron doping of germanium (Ge) is considered to be an important process to convert Ge into an optical gain material and realize a monolithic light source integrated on a silicon chip. Spin-on doping is a method that offers the potential to achieve high doping concentrations without affecting crystalline qualities over other methods such as ion implantation and in-situ doping during material growth. However, a standard spin-on doping recipe satisfying these requirements is not yet available. In this paper we examine spin-on doping of Ge-on-insulator (GOI) wafers. Several issues were identified during the spin-on doping process and specifically the adhesion between Ge and the oxide, surface oxidation during activation, and the stress created in the layers due to annealing. In order to mitigate these problems, Ge disks were first patterned by dry etching followed by spin-on doping. Even by using this method to reduce the stress, local peeling of Ge could still be identified by optical microscope imaging. Nevertheless, most of the Ge disks remained after the removal of the glass. According to the Raman data, we could not identify broadening of the lineshape which shows a good crystalline quality, while the stress is slightly relaxed. We also determined the linear increase of the photoluminescence intensity by increasing the optical pumping power for the doped sample, which implies a direct population and recombination at the gamma valley.

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JJAPpostprint_9thjune2015.pdf - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 4 March 2015
Published date: 16 April 2015
Additional Information: The copyright of this paper belongs to the Japan Society of Applied Physics. ©2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.
Organisations: Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 377905
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/377905
ISSN: 0021-4922
PURE UUID: 90a7b8a1-857c-443c-a5b5-b62c459ca9d0
ORCID for Shinichi Saito: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1539-1182

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Date deposited: 26 Jun 2015 13:40
Last modified: 07 Aug 2019 00:34

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Contributors

Author: Abdelrahman Al-Attili
Author: Satoshi Kako
Author: Muhammad Husain
Author: Frederic Gardes
Author: Hideo Arimoto
Author: Naoki Higashitarumizu
Author: Satoshi Iwamoto
Author: Yasuhiko Arakawa
Author: Yasuhiko Ishikawa
Author: Shinichi Saito ORCID iD

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