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Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe

Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe
Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe
Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130–25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined as a scale from “proximal” to “distal,” with local conditions (topographic shelter or exposure) serving to intensify or mitigate those effects
0277-3791
211-242
Davies, W.
5042ec27-3fcd-4ddb-bc0c-8c5578a0e50b
White, Dustin
92a76293-98dc-42bd-83a9-768a48ce9272
Lewis, Mark
c9c5199c-2cac-40d1-b305-de15b7607875
Stringer, Chris
4882ed94-1b65-49b2-ad5b-9c570bcff307
Davies, W.
5042ec27-3fcd-4ddb-bc0c-8c5578a0e50b
White, Dustin
92a76293-98dc-42bd-83a9-768a48ce9272
Lewis, Mark
c9c5199c-2cac-40d1-b305-de15b7607875
Stringer, Chris
4882ed94-1b65-49b2-ad5b-9c570bcff307

Davies, W., White, Dustin, Lewis, Mark and Stringer, Chris (2015) Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe. [in special issue: Synchronising Environmental and Archaeological Records using Volcanic Ash Isochrons] Quaternary Science Reviews, 118, 211-242. (doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.12.003).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130–25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined as a scale from “proximal” to “distal,” with local conditions (topographic shelter or exposure) serving to intensify or mitigate those effects

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Accepted/In Press date: 5 December 2014
e-pub ahead of print date: 16 February 2015
Published date: 15 June 2015
Organisations: Archaeology

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Local EPrints ID: 378142
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/378142
ISSN: 0277-3791
PURE UUID: f06210f0-c44a-4f8e-836a-c22ed78934f9

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Date deposited: 25 Jun 2015 10:12
Last modified: 06 Aug 2019 18:39

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Author: W. Davies
Author: Dustin White
Author: Mark Lewis
Author: Chris Stringer

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