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Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse

Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse
Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse
Volcanic edifice collapses generate some of Earth's largest landslides. How such unloading affects the magma storage systems is important for both hazard assessment and for determining long-term controls on volcano growth and decay. Here we present a detailed stratigraphic and petrological analyses of volcanic landslide and eruption deposits offshore Montserrat, in a subduction zone setting, sampled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340. A large (6–10?km3) collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano at ~130?ka was followed by explosive basaltic volcanism and the formation of a new basaltic volcanic center, the South Soufrière Hills, estimated to have initiated <100?years after collapse. This basaltic volcanism was a sharp departure from the andesitic volcanism that characterized Soufrière Hills' activity before the collapse. Mineral-melt thermobarometry demonstrates that the basaltic magma's transit through the crust was rapid and from midcrustal depths. We suggest that this rapid ascent was promoted by unloading following collapse.
sector collapse, clinopyroxene, petrology, magma ascent
0094-8276
4778-4785
Cassidy, M.
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Watt, S.F.L.
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Talling, P.J.
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Palmer, M.R.
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Edmonds, M.
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Jutzeler, M.
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Wall-Palmer, D.
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Manga, M.
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Coussens, M.
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Gernon, T.
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Taylor, R.N.
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Michalik, A.
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Inglis, E.
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Hornbach, M.J.
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Colas, S.L.
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Endo, D.
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Kataoka, K.S.
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Maeno, F.
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Wang, F.
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Cassidy, M.
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Watt, S.F.L.
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Talling, P.J.
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Palmer, M.R.
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Edmonds, M.
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Jutzeler, M.
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Wall-Palmer, D.
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Manga, M.
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Coussens, M.
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Gernon, T.
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Taylor, R.N.
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Michalik, A.
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Inglis, E.
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Breitkreuz, C.
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Le Friant, A.
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Ishizuka, O.
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Boudon, G.
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McCanta, M.C.
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Adachi, T.
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Hornbach, M.J.
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Colas, S.L.
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Endo, D.
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Fujinawa, A.
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Kataoka, K.S.
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Maeno, F.
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Tamura, Y.
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Wang, F.
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Cassidy, M., Watt, S.F.L., Talling, P.J., Palmer, M.R., Edmonds, M., Jutzeler, M., Wall-Palmer, D., Manga, M., Coussens, M., Gernon, T., Taylor, R.N., Michalik, A., Inglis, E., Breitkreuz, C., Le Friant, A., Ishizuka, O., Boudon, G., McCanta, M.C., Adachi, T., Hornbach, M.J., Colas, S.L., Endo, D., Fujinawa, A., Kataoka, K.S., Maeno, F., Tamura, Y. and Wang, F. (2015) Rapid onset of mafic magmatism facilitated by volcanic edifice collapse. Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (12), 4778-4785. (doi:10.1002/2015GL064519).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Volcanic edifice collapses generate some of Earth's largest landslides. How such unloading affects the magma storage systems is important for both hazard assessment and for determining long-term controls on volcano growth and decay. Here we present a detailed stratigraphic and petrological analyses of volcanic landslide and eruption deposits offshore Montserrat, in a subduction zone setting, sampled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340. A large (6–10?km3) collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano at ~130?ka was followed by explosive basaltic volcanism and the formation of a new basaltic volcanic center, the South Soufrière Hills, estimated to have initiated <100?years after collapse. This basaltic volcanism was a sharp departure from the andesitic volcanism that characterized Soufrière Hills' activity before the collapse. Mineral-melt thermobarometry demonstrates that the basaltic magma's transit through the crust was rapid and from midcrustal depths. We suggest that this rapid ascent was promoted by unloading following collapse.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 17 June 2015
Published date: 28 June 2015
Keywords: sector collapse, clinopyroxene, petrology, magma ascent
Organisations: Geology & Geophysics, Geochemistry, Marine Geoscience

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 378158
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/378158
ISSN: 0094-8276
PURE UUID: 5920765d-6c9e-4d0a-bbf9-1b7cedb48eb8

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Date deposited: 18 Jun 2015 08:35
Last modified: 25 Nov 2019 20:34

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Contributors

Author: M. Cassidy
Author: S.F.L. Watt
Author: P.J. Talling
Author: M.R. Palmer
Author: M. Edmonds
Author: M. Jutzeler
Author: D. Wall-Palmer
Author: M. Manga
Author: M. Coussens
Author: T. Gernon
Author: R.N. Taylor
Author: A. Michalik
Author: E. Inglis
Author: C. Breitkreuz
Author: A. Le Friant
Author: O. Ishizuka
Author: G. Boudon
Author: M.C. McCanta
Author: T. Adachi
Author: M.J. Hornbach
Author: S.L. Colas
Author: D. Endo
Author: A. Fujinawa
Author: K.S. Kataoka
Author: F. Maeno
Author: Y. Tamura
Author: F. Wang

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