White, A.R., Curtis, S.A. and Walker, R.J.
Evidence for a possible role for nitric oxide in the modulation of heart activity in Achatina fulica and Helix aspersa
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 137, (2), . (doi:10.1016/j.cca.2003.11.009).
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The effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, S-nitroso--glutathione, sodium nitroprusside and sodium nitrite were investigated on the activity of the isolated hearts of Achatina fulica and Helix aspersa. NO donors inhibited heart activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The only exception was sodium nitroprusside, which excited H. aspersa heart. The inhibitory effects of these NO donors were reduced by the NO scavenger, methylene blue, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 1H-(1,2,4) Oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), and potentiated by 8-Br-cGMP and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Acetylcholine also inhibited the heart activity, and this inhibition was reduced by methylene blue and ODQ. Positive NADPH-diaphorase staining was located in the outer pericardial layer of the heart of A. fulica. The present results provide evidence that NO may modulate the activity of gastropod hearts, and this modulation may modify the inhibitory action of acetylcholine on heart activity.
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