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Susceptibility of European crustaceans to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a non-exotic, EC Directive-listed pathogen

Susceptibility of European crustaceans to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a non-exotic, EC Directive-listed pathogen
Susceptibility of European crustaceans to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a non-exotic, EC Directive-listed pathogen
This project provides a definitive statement on the susceptibility of ecologically and economically important European crustacean species to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Exposure trials revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in seven hosts, and that relative susceptibility varies significantly between species. To determine whether WSSV infection would remain in the tissues of crabs as persistent infections (or whether these crabs would clear the viral infection from their systems over time) crabs were fed with WSSV-infected tissues and then observed in tanks for 3 months. Results suggested that the carcasses of infected (but not diseased) shore and edible crab crabs appear to pose a limited risk of transmission to susceptible hosts within the 3 month timeframe of the study.

The European shore crab (Carcinus maenas) was shown to display a lower susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) when compared to other European decapod species. Despite showing signs of infection with WSSV, the shore crab appeared resistant to the development of disease and was highlighted as a possible asymptomatic carrier of the virus. Carcinus maenas individuals which had been injected with WSSV and then exposed to varying temperature stress conditions were compared. This suggested that crabs could be divided into two groups (high and low responders) according to differences in pathogenesis and viral replication. The response was not dependent on the presence or absence of an external stressor but was more likely an inherent capacity within individual crabs.

A small scale survey of supermarket commodity shrimp confirmed the presence of WSSV-contaminated products within shrimp imported for human consumpt ion, demonstrating that frozen commodity shrimp is a route of entry for WSSV into Europe. Experimental trials showed that this virus is viable and that the commodity products were infective and could passage the infection to naive crustaceans that are known to be susceptible to the virus, highlighting this practice needs to be considered and controlled in risk assessments. Analysis of WSSV Variable Nucleotide Tandem Repeats (VNTR) within ORF 94 following passage through different hosts revealed subtle differences in WSSV VNTR types present in crab and crayfish tissues suggesting that the host may influence which viral type propagates during infections. These studies also identified and described two novel virus infections. The viral infections mimic the appearance of WSSV and highlight the importance of being able to fully characterise virus infections when they are first identified.
Bateman, Kelly Simone
386acb01-3829-42e2-bdaa-cef6255c4f80
Bateman, Kelly Simone
386acb01-3829-42e2-bdaa-cef6255c4f80
Hauton, Christopher
7706f6ba-4497-42b2-8c6d-00df81676331

Bateman, Kelly Simone (2014) Susceptibility of European crustaceans to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a non-exotic, EC Directive-listed pathogen. University of Southampton, Ocean and Earth Science, Doctoral Thesis, 361pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

This project provides a definitive statement on the susceptibility of ecologically and economically important European crustacean species to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Exposure trials revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in seven hosts, and that relative susceptibility varies significantly between species. To determine whether WSSV infection would remain in the tissues of crabs as persistent infections (or whether these crabs would clear the viral infection from their systems over time) crabs were fed with WSSV-infected tissues and then observed in tanks for 3 months. Results suggested that the carcasses of infected (but not diseased) shore and edible crab crabs appear to pose a limited risk of transmission to susceptible hosts within the 3 month timeframe of the study.

The European shore crab (Carcinus maenas) was shown to display a lower susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) when compared to other European decapod species. Despite showing signs of infection with WSSV, the shore crab appeared resistant to the development of disease and was highlighted as a possible asymptomatic carrier of the virus. Carcinus maenas individuals which had been injected with WSSV and then exposed to varying temperature stress conditions were compared. This suggested that crabs could be divided into two groups (high and low responders) according to differences in pathogenesis and viral replication. The response was not dependent on the presence or absence of an external stressor but was more likely an inherent capacity within individual crabs.

A small scale survey of supermarket commodity shrimp confirmed the presence of WSSV-contaminated products within shrimp imported for human consumpt ion, demonstrating that frozen commodity shrimp is a route of entry for WSSV into Europe. Experimental trials showed that this virus is viable and that the commodity products were infective and could passage the infection to naive crustaceans that are known to be susceptible to the virus, highlighting this practice needs to be considered and controlled in risk assessments. Analysis of WSSV Variable Nucleotide Tandem Repeats (VNTR) within ORF 94 following passage through different hosts revealed subtle differences in WSSV VNTR types present in crab and crayfish tissues suggesting that the host may influence which viral type propagates during infections. These studies also identified and described two novel virus infections. The viral infections mimic the appearance of WSSV and highlight the importance of being able to fully characterise virus infections when they are first identified.

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Published date: 25 December 2014
Organisations: University of Southampton, Ocean and Earth Science

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 378999
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/378999
PURE UUID: 6d9f0dc4-54e8-4c8c-91ad-16e03ec96b0e
ORCID for Christopher Hauton: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2313-4226

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 27 Jul 2015 14:17
Last modified: 10 Jul 2018 00:35

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Contributors

Author: Kelly Simone Bateman
Thesis advisor: Christopher Hauton ORCID iD

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