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Dust deposition in the eastern Indian Ocean: The ocean perspective from Antarctica to the Bay of Bengal

Dust deposition in the eastern Indian Ocean: The ocean perspective from Antarctica to the Bay of Bengal
Dust deposition in the eastern Indian Ocean: The ocean perspective from Antarctica to the Bay of Bengal



Atmospheric deposition is an important but still poorly constrained source of trace micronutrients to the open ocean because of the dearth of in situ measurements of total deposition (i.e., wet?+?dry deposition) in remote regions. In this work, we discuss the upper ocean distribution of dissolved Fe and Al in the eastern Indian Ocean along a 95°E meridional transect spanning the Antarctic margin to the Bay of Bengal. We use the mixed layer concentration of dissolved Al in conjunction with empirical data in a simple steady state model to produce 75 estimates of total dust deposition that we compare with historical observations and atmospheric model estimates. Except in the northern Bay of Bengal where the Ganges-Brahmaputra river plume contributes to the inventory of dissolved Al, the surface distribution of dissolved Al along 95°E is remarkably consistent with the large-scale gradients in mineral dust deposition and multiple-source regions impacting the eastern Indian Ocean. The lowest total dust deposition fluxes are calculated for the Southern Ocean (66?±?60?mg?m?2?yr?1) and the highest for the northern end of the south Indian subtropical gyre (up to 940?mg?m?2?yr?1 at 18°S) and in the southern Bay of Bengal (2500?±?570?mg?m?2?yr?1). Our total deposition fluxes, which have an uncertainty on the order of a factor of 3.5, are comparable with the composite atmospheric model data of Mahowald et al. (2005), except in the south Indian subtropical gyre where models may underestimate total deposition. Using available measurements of the solubility of Fe in aerosols, we confirm that dust deposition is a minor source of dissolved Fe to the Southern Ocean and show that aeolian deposition of dissolved Fe in the southern Bay of Bengal may be comparable to that observed underneath the Saharan dust plume in the Atlantic Ocean.
dust deposition, dissolved Al, dissolved Fe, CLIVAR, Indian Ocean, MADCOW
0886-6236
357-374
Grand, Maxime M.
659acbde-d639-42b7-9fab-52fa1b3655ff
Measures, Christopher I.
bee0ab0a-cbec-491e-bcfa-e0cec9df67bb
Hatta, Mariko
b8c210ca-90aa-4660-b1b7-3538b120e31d
Hiscock, William T.
57d2eb7d-bf3d-4423-95c5-8ca254b4a513
Buck, Clifton S.
71ceb13c-c706-4071-a910-b0018a84b3ff
Landing, William M.
26eb4b62-d05c-42bb-a757-f840915f6576
Grand, Maxime M.
659acbde-d639-42b7-9fab-52fa1b3655ff
Measures, Christopher I.
bee0ab0a-cbec-491e-bcfa-e0cec9df67bb
Hatta, Mariko
b8c210ca-90aa-4660-b1b7-3538b120e31d
Hiscock, William T.
57d2eb7d-bf3d-4423-95c5-8ca254b4a513
Buck, Clifton S.
71ceb13c-c706-4071-a910-b0018a84b3ff
Landing, William M.
26eb4b62-d05c-42bb-a757-f840915f6576

Grand, Maxime M., Measures, Christopher I., Hatta, Mariko, Hiscock, William T., Buck, Clifton S. and Landing, William M. (2015) Dust deposition in the eastern Indian Ocean: The ocean perspective from Antarctica to the Bay of Bengal. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29 (3), 357-374. (doi:10.1002/2014GB004898).

Record type: Article

Abstract




Atmospheric deposition is an important but still poorly constrained source of trace micronutrients to the open ocean because of the dearth of in situ measurements of total deposition (i.e., wet?+?dry deposition) in remote regions. In this work, we discuss the upper ocean distribution of dissolved Fe and Al in the eastern Indian Ocean along a 95°E meridional transect spanning the Antarctic margin to the Bay of Bengal. We use the mixed layer concentration of dissolved Al in conjunction with empirical data in a simple steady state model to produce 75 estimates of total dust deposition that we compare with historical observations and atmospheric model estimates. Except in the northern Bay of Bengal where the Ganges-Brahmaputra river plume contributes to the inventory of dissolved Al, the surface distribution of dissolved Al along 95°E is remarkably consistent with the large-scale gradients in mineral dust deposition and multiple-source regions impacting the eastern Indian Ocean. The lowest total dust deposition fluxes are calculated for the Southern Ocean (66?±?60?mg?m?2?yr?1) and the highest for the northern end of the south Indian subtropical gyre (up to 940?mg?m?2?yr?1 at 18°S) and in the southern Bay of Bengal (2500?±?570?mg?m?2?yr?1). Our total deposition fluxes, which have an uncertainty on the order of a factor of 3.5, are comparable with the composite atmospheric model data of Mahowald et al. (2005), except in the south Indian subtropical gyre where models may underestimate total deposition. Using available measurements of the solubility of Fe in aerosols, we confirm that dust deposition is a minor source of dissolved Fe to the Southern Ocean and show that aeolian deposition of dissolved Fe in the southern Bay of Bengal may be comparable to that observed underneath the Saharan dust plume in the Atlantic Ocean.

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Accepted/In Press date: 13 February 2015
Published date: 30 March 2015
Keywords: dust deposition, dissolved Al, dissolved Fe, CLIVAR, Indian Ocean, MADCOW
Organisations: Geochemistry

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 379886
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/379886
ISSN: 0886-6236
PURE UUID: 0633d5a2-c320-468d-afa7-ee7097b5ae39
ORCID for Maxime M. Grand: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9338-694X

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Date deposited: 03 Aug 2015 13:04
Last modified: 09 Dec 2019 19:51

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