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White matter alterations at 33-year follow-up in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

White matter alterations at 33-year follow-up in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
White matter alterations at 33-year follow-up in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Background

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly conceived as reflecting altered functional and structural brain connectivity. The latter can be addressed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We examined fractional anisotropy (FA), a DTI index related to white matter structural properties, in adult male subjects diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (probands) and matched control subjects without childhood ADHD. Additionally, we contrasted FA among probands with and without current ADHD in adulthood and control subjects.

Methods

Participants were from an original cohort of 207 boys and 178 male control subjects. At 33-year follow-up, analyzable DTI scans were obtained in 51 probands (41.3±2.8 yrs) and 66 control subjects (41.2±3.1 yrs). Voxel-based FA was computed with tract-based spatial statistics, controlling for multiple comparisons.

Results

Probands with childhood ADHD exhibited significantly lower FA than control subjects without childhood ADHD in the right superior and posterior corona radiata, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, and in a left cluster including the posterior thalamic radiation, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, and the sagittal stratum (p<.05, corrected). Fractional anisotropy was significantly decreased relative to control subjects in several tracts in both probands with current and remitted ADHD, who did not differ significantly from each other. Fractional anisotropy was not significantly increased in probands in any region.

Conclusions

Decreased FA in adults with childhood ADHD regardless of current ADHD might be an enduring trait of ADHD. White matter tracts with decreased FA connect regions involved in high-level as well as sensorimotor functions, suggesting that both types of processes are involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD.
ADHD, DTI, fractional anisotropy, longitudinal follow-up, neuroimaging, pathophysiology
0006-3223
591-598
Cortese, Samuele
53d4bf2c-4e0e-4c77-9385-218350560fdb
Imperati, Davide
45f6a6eb-4f8f-4614-93ea-79e2358534bd
Zhou, Juan
12953b29-5569-4a5d-aafd-a63a4be8abc6
Proal, Erika
706638c9-a072-4632-9199-6ea2a7aaa862
Klein, Rachel G.
4cc01029-acd0-49a4-a1f9-7022d72c4e9d
Mannuzza, Salvatore
5f542574-3ca8-4739-b18a-9576feb4d10e
Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria A.
a6a2e7a0-dbb5-494c-a028-bbacbef00ca7
Milham, Michael P.
e95a9d22-6154-47a9-a26f-e27836df8675
Kelly, Clare
f33af47b-6b5d-4306-a280-7db9b4612508
Castellanos, F. Xavier
699a8e5d-77f7-41dd-8dba-50f2dece7dd8
Cortese, Samuele
53d4bf2c-4e0e-4c77-9385-218350560fdb
Imperati, Davide
45f6a6eb-4f8f-4614-93ea-79e2358534bd
Zhou, Juan
12953b29-5569-4a5d-aafd-a63a4be8abc6
Proal, Erika
706638c9-a072-4632-9199-6ea2a7aaa862
Klein, Rachel G.
4cc01029-acd0-49a4-a1f9-7022d72c4e9d
Mannuzza, Salvatore
5f542574-3ca8-4739-b18a-9576feb4d10e
Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria A.
a6a2e7a0-dbb5-494c-a028-bbacbef00ca7
Milham, Michael P.
e95a9d22-6154-47a9-a26f-e27836df8675
Kelly, Clare
f33af47b-6b5d-4306-a280-7db9b4612508
Castellanos, F. Xavier
699a8e5d-77f7-41dd-8dba-50f2dece7dd8

Cortese, Samuele, Imperati, Davide, Zhou, Juan, Proal, Erika, Klein, Rachel G., Mannuzza, Salvatore, Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria A., Milham, Michael P., Kelly, Clare and Castellanos, F. Xavier (2013) White matter alterations at 33-year follow-up in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 74 (8), 591-598. (doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.02.025).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly conceived as reflecting altered functional and structural brain connectivity. The latter can be addressed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We examined fractional anisotropy (FA), a DTI index related to white matter structural properties, in adult male subjects diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (probands) and matched control subjects without childhood ADHD. Additionally, we contrasted FA among probands with and without current ADHD in adulthood and control subjects.

Methods

Participants were from an original cohort of 207 boys and 178 male control subjects. At 33-year follow-up, analyzable DTI scans were obtained in 51 probands (41.3±2.8 yrs) and 66 control subjects (41.2±3.1 yrs). Voxel-based FA was computed with tract-based spatial statistics, controlling for multiple comparisons.

Results

Probands with childhood ADHD exhibited significantly lower FA than control subjects without childhood ADHD in the right superior and posterior corona radiata, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, and in a left cluster including the posterior thalamic radiation, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, and the sagittal stratum (p<.05, corrected). Fractional anisotropy was significantly decreased relative to control subjects in several tracts in both probands with current and remitted ADHD, who did not differ significantly from each other. Fractional anisotropy was not significantly increased in probands in any region.

Conclusions

Decreased FA in adults with childhood ADHD regardless of current ADHD might be an enduring trait of ADHD. White matter tracts with decreased FA connect regions involved in high-level as well as sensorimotor functions, suggesting that both types of processes are involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Accepted/In Press date: 28 February 2013
e-pub ahead of print date: 6 April 2013
Published date: 15 October 2013
Keywords: ADHD, DTI, fractional anisotropy, longitudinal follow-up, neuroimaging, pathophysiology
Organisations: Clinical Neuroscience

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 380192
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/380192
ISSN: 0006-3223
PURE UUID: 87a952b5-bfd5-4eb6-8ea9-02561da86693
ORCID for Samuele Cortese: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5877-8075

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 21 Aug 2015 12:01
Last modified: 29 Aug 2019 00:32

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Contributors

Author: Samuele Cortese ORCID iD
Author: Davide Imperati
Author: Juan Zhou
Author: Erika Proal
Author: Rachel G. Klein
Author: Salvatore Mannuzza
Author: Maria A. Ramos-Olazagasti
Author: Michael P. Milham
Author: Clare Kelly
Author: F. Xavier Castellanos

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