The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

The relationship between body mass index and body size dissatisfaction in young adolescents: spline function analysis

The relationship between body mass index and body size dissatisfaction in young adolescents: spline function analysis
The relationship between body mass index and body size dissatisfaction in young adolescents: spline function analysis

This study assessed how body size dissatisfaction (BSD) varies in relationship to specific body mass index (BMI) values in a sample of preadolescents. A novel statistical approach based on spline function, suitable to assess in detail how two variables are related, was used. The study was conducted between December 2004 and March 2005. Students (aged 11 to 14 years) from seven selected secondary schools in Verona, Italy, were invited to participate. The final study group included 678 subjects. BSD was assessed using the Body Image Assessment Procedure. BMI values were expressed as z scores. It was found that, in the total sample, slightly underweight subjects (BMI z scores=?0.5) had no BSD. BSD progressively increased (current body size > ideal body size) for BMI z scores >?0.5 and became negative (ideal body size > current body size) for BMI z scores <?0.5. In boys, average weight subjects had no BSD. BSD progressively increased for BMI z scores >0 and became negative for BMI z scores <0. In girls, moderately underweight subjects (BMI z scores=?1) had no BSD. BSD progressively increased for BMI z scores >?1 and became negative for BMI z scores <?1. Although sex significantly moderated the relationship between BMI and BSD (P<0.001), socioeconomic status did not (P=0.459). Because average weight and slightly underweight young girls desired a thinner body, our study suggests that these subgroups should receive particular attention in public health programs as well as in dietetics clinical practice.



Body image relates to a person's perceptions, feelings, and thoughts about his or her body, and is usually conceptualized as incorporating body size estimation, evaluation of body attractiveness, and emotions associated with body shape and size (1). Concerns with body image, including body size dissatisfaction (BSD), are common among adolescents (2, 3, 4 and 5). They are associated with emotional distress, low self-esteem, and increased risk for eating disorders (6 and 7).

Most (8, 9, 10, 11 and 12), although not all (13 and 14), studies have reported a significant positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BSD. However, these studies used statistical analyses suitable to estimate only whether BMI and BSD are associated. No epidemiologic studies have investigated in detail how BMI and BSD are associated. Such a detailed analysis would provide information on the specific BMI categories that display BSD. This, in turn, would offer insight into what factors might be useful to include in health programs that target specific weight groups. Such analysis would also provide useful insights for clinical practice, suggesting which weight categories should receive particular attention in the management of BSD.

Moreover, it is still unclear how sex (3) and socioeconomic status (SES) (15, 16 and 17) moderate the inter-relationship between BMI and BSD in preadolescents.

The aim of our study was to assess how BSD relates to specific BMI values and the influence of sex and SES on this relationship. It was decided to only include young adolescents to collect data that could potentially be useful for prevention programs addressing BSD in this young population.
0002-8223
1098-1102
Cortese, Samuele
53d4bf2c-4e0e-4c77-9385-218350560fdb
Falissard, Bruno
a5030786-d94f-4b6c-8091-48b5cfd15630
Pigaiani, Yolande
61b9bd01-3f3d-4ad0-8511-70fb0a130b34
Banzato, Claudia
bdb3a75a-7297-4dc5-b27d-f856b68db4d5
Bogoni, Giovanna
144aedef-ef2c-4082-87e9-378adccf6ee7
Pellegrino, Maristella
37f6b826-ff04-40c2-b23c-3f2826ad7632
Vincenzi, Brenda
6cf59f67-ef21-439e-9d01-8a551b4721cb
Angriman, Marco
3520e752-d35c-461f-80f4-b31203319cef
Cook, Solange
af9bf368-a40f-4041-91b3-37bdef38497e
Purper-Ouakil, Diane
54755856-1833-44db-9a28-94d78d444688
Dalla Bernardina, Bernardo
7227bef3-69ce-447b-9cb4-b18e206af753
Maffeis, Claudio
58844f2c-150c-4cc3-83fb-97bf9b29cd09
Cortese, Samuele
53d4bf2c-4e0e-4c77-9385-218350560fdb
Falissard, Bruno
a5030786-d94f-4b6c-8091-48b5cfd15630
Pigaiani, Yolande
61b9bd01-3f3d-4ad0-8511-70fb0a130b34
Banzato, Claudia
bdb3a75a-7297-4dc5-b27d-f856b68db4d5
Bogoni, Giovanna
144aedef-ef2c-4082-87e9-378adccf6ee7
Pellegrino, Maristella
37f6b826-ff04-40c2-b23c-3f2826ad7632
Vincenzi, Brenda
6cf59f67-ef21-439e-9d01-8a551b4721cb
Angriman, Marco
3520e752-d35c-461f-80f4-b31203319cef
Cook, Solange
af9bf368-a40f-4041-91b3-37bdef38497e
Purper-Ouakil, Diane
54755856-1833-44db-9a28-94d78d444688
Dalla Bernardina, Bernardo
7227bef3-69ce-447b-9cb4-b18e206af753
Maffeis, Claudio
58844f2c-150c-4cc3-83fb-97bf9b29cd09

Cortese, Samuele, Falissard, Bruno, Pigaiani, Yolande, Banzato, Claudia, Bogoni, Giovanna, Pellegrino, Maristella, Vincenzi, Brenda, Angriman, Marco, Cook, Solange, Purper-Ouakil, Diane, Dalla Bernardina, Bernardo and Maffeis, Claudio (2010) The relationship between body mass index and body size dissatisfaction in young adolescents: spline function analysis. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110 (7), 1098-1102. (doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.04.001).

Record type: Article

Abstract


This study assessed how body size dissatisfaction (BSD) varies in relationship to specific body mass index (BMI) values in a sample of preadolescents. A novel statistical approach based on spline function, suitable to assess in detail how two variables are related, was used. The study was conducted between December 2004 and March 2005. Students (aged 11 to 14 years) from seven selected secondary schools in Verona, Italy, were invited to participate. The final study group included 678 subjects. BSD was assessed using the Body Image Assessment Procedure. BMI values were expressed as z scores. It was found that, in the total sample, slightly underweight subjects (BMI z scores=?0.5) had no BSD. BSD progressively increased (current body size > ideal body size) for BMI z scores >?0.5 and became negative (ideal body size > current body size) for BMI z scores <?0.5. In boys, average weight subjects had no BSD. BSD progressively increased for BMI z scores >0 and became negative for BMI z scores <0. In girls, moderately underweight subjects (BMI z scores=?1) had no BSD. BSD progressively increased for BMI z scores >?1 and became negative for BMI z scores <?1. Although sex significantly moderated the relationship between BMI and BSD (P<0.001), socioeconomic status did not (P=0.459). Because average weight and slightly underweight young girls desired a thinner body, our study suggests that these subgroups should receive particular attention in public health programs as well as in dietetics clinical practice.



Body image relates to a person's perceptions, feelings, and thoughts about his or her body, and is usually conceptualized as incorporating body size estimation, evaluation of body attractiveness, and emotions associated with body shape and size (1). Concerns with body image, including body size dissatisfaction (BSD), are common among adolescents (2, 3, 4 and 5). They are associated with emotional distress, low self-esteem, and increased risk for eating disorders (6 and 7).

Most (8, 9, 10, 11 and 12), although not all (13 and 14), studies have reported a significant positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BSD. However, these studies used statistical analyses suitable to estimate only whether BMI and BSD are associated. No epidemiologic studies have investigated in detail how BMI and BSD are associated. Such a detailed analysis would provide information on the specific BMI categories that display BSD. This, in turn, would offer insight into what factors might be useful to include in health programs that target specific weight groups. Such analysis would also provide useful insights for clinical practice, suggesting which weight categories should receive particular attention in the management of BSD.

Moreover, it is still unclear how sex (3) and socioeconomic status (SES) (15, 16 and 17) moderate the inter-relationship between BMI and BSD in preadolescents.

The aim of our study was to assess how BSD relates to specific BMI values and the influence of sex and SES on this relationship. It was decided to only include young adolescents to collect data that could potentially be useful for prevention programs addressing BSD in this young population.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: 22 June 2010
Organisations: Clinical Neuroscience

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 380432
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/380432
ISSN: 0002-8223
PURE UUID: acaf2369-3cd0-457f-ab10-970f58fd592b
ORCID for Samuele Cortese: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5877-8075

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 20 Aug 2015 12:53
Last modified: 20 Jul 2019 00:35

Export record

Altmetrics

Contributors

Author: Samuele Cortese ORCID iD
Author: Bruno Falissard
Author: Yolande Pigaiani
Author: Claudia Banzato
Author: Giovanna Bogoni
Author: Maristella Pellegrino
Author: Brenda Vincenzi
Author: Marco Angriman
Author: Solange Cook
Author: Diane Purper-Ouakil
Author: Bernardo Dalla Bernardina
Author: Claudio Maffeis

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×