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Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space

Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space
Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space
The toroidal dipole is a localized electromagnetic excitation, distinct from the magnetic and electric dipoles. While the electric dipole can be understood as a pair of opposite charges and the magnetic dipole as a current loop, the toroidal dipole corresponds to currents flowing on the surface of a torus. Toroidal dipoles provide physically significant contributions to the basic characteristics of matter including absorption, dispersion and optical activity. Toroidal excitations also exist in free space as spatially and temporally localized electromagnetic pulses propagating at the speed of light and interacting with matter. We review recent experimental observations of resonant toroidal dipole excitations in metamaterials and the discovery of anapoles, non-radiating current configurations involving toroidal dipoles. While certain fundamental and practical aspects of toroidal electrodynamics remain open for the moment, we envision that exploitation of toroidal excitations can have important implications for the fields of photonics, sensing, energy and information.
1476-1122
263-271
Papasimakis, N.
f416bfa9-544c-4a3e-8a2d-bc1c11133a51
Fedotov, V.A.
3725f5cc-2d0b-4e61-95c5-26d187c84f25
Savinov, V.
147c7954-4636-4438-a305-cd78539f7c0a
Raybould, T.A.
cd82c867-4261-44fa-ac5e-b1e537b6958f
Zheludev, N.I.
32fb6af7-97e4-4d11-bca6-805745e40cc6
Papasimakis, N.
f416bfa9-544c-4a3e-8a2d-bc1c11133a51
Fedotov, V.A.
3725f5cc-2d0b-4e61-95c5-26d187c84f25
Savinov, V.
147c7954-4636-4438-a305-cd78539f7c0a
Raybould, T.A.
cd82c867-4261-44fa-ac5e-b1e537b6958f
Zheludev, N.I.
32fb6af7-97e4-4d11-bca6-805745e40cc6

Papasimakis, N., Fedotov, V.A., Savinov, V., Raybould, T.A. and Zheludev, N.I. (2016) Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space. Nature Materials, 15, 263-271. (doi:10.1038/NMAT4563).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The toroidal dipole is a localized electromagnetic excitation, distinct from the magnetic and electric dipoles. While the electric dipole can be understood as a pair of opposite charges and the magnetic dipole as a current loop, the toroidal dipole corresponds to currents flowing on the surface of a torus. Toroidal dipoles provide physically significant contributions to the basic characteristics of matter including absorption, dispersion and optical activity. Toroidal excitations also exist in free space as spatially and temporally localized electromagnetic pulses propagating at the speed of light and interacting with matter. We review recent experimental observations of resonant toroidal dipole excitations in metamaterials and the discovery of anapoles, non-radiating current configurations involving toroidal dipoles. While certain fundamental and practical aspects of toroidal electrodynamics remain open for the moment, we envision that exploitation of toroidal excitations can have important implications for the fields of photonics, sensing, energy and information.

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Accepted/In Press date: 8 January 2016
Published date: 24 February 2016
Organisations: Optoelectronics Research Centre

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 380437
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/380437
ISSN: 1476-1122
PURE UUID: 019a6bba-2bd5-45e2-8851-6c1ed90c99e2
ORCID for N. Papasimakis: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6347-6466
ORCID for V. Savinov: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-7203-7222
ORCID for N.I. Zheludev: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1013-6636

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Date deposited: 15 Sep 2015 08:52
Last modified: 10 Dec 2019 01:56

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