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Acute toxicity of some treatments commonly used by the salmonid aquaculture industry to Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor: whole sediment bioassay tests

Acute toxicity of some treatments commonly used by the salmonid aquaculture industry to Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor: whole sediment bioassay tests
Acute toxicity of some treatments commonly used by the salmonid aquaculture industry to Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor: whole sediment bioassay tests
The commercial farming of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, typically requires the periodic application of copper-based anti-foulants and chemotherapeutic treatments, including Slice®, Excis®, Salmosan® and Aquatet®/Tetraplex® to reduce the effects of biological pests. Information on the environmental safety of any chemical agent released into the aquatic environment must be obtained before a product can be licensed for use, but such information typically exists only in confidential technical reports which can be difficult to obtain. Furthermore, different test organisms, experimental protocols and reporting procedures make comparison of the various compounds/studies difficult. Here we present a series of 10-day, whole sediment bioassay tests that determined the concentrations of emamectin benzoate (EB), cypermethrin (CP), azamethiphos (AZ) and oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC), the active ingredients of the aforementioned chemotherapeutants, and copper, that caused 50% mortality (LC50) in the non-target benthic crustacean, Corophium volutator. Additional whole sediment bioassays of identical design were conducted with the non-target polychaete worm, Hediste diversicolor exposed to copper and EB. C. volutator demonstrated similar sensitivity to EB and AZ, with LC50s of 153 (95% confidence intervals, CI = 119–198) and 182 (95% CI = 152–217) µg active ingredient [kg wet sediment]? 1 respectively. OTC caused 50% mortality of C. volutator at a concentration of 414 (95% CI = 233–734) µg OTC [kg wet sediment]? 1. The LC50 for H. diversicolor exposed to EB was 1368 (95% CI = 744–2516) µg EB [kg wet sediment]? 1, an order of magnitude greater than that for C. volutator. Conversely, C. volutator was able to tolerate much higher concentrations of copper than H. diversicolor, with LC50s of 193,326 (95% CI = 171,034–218,523) and 74,988 (95% CI = 61,192–91,895) µg Cu [kg wet sediment]? 1 respectively. CP was the most toxic to C. volutator of all compounds investigated, causing 50% mortality at a concentration of 5 (95% CI = 4–6) µg CP [kg wet sediment]? 1. These data allow direct inter-comparison of the toxicities of some of the commonly applied treatments used by the global salmonid aquaculture industry.
Sediment bioassay, Corophium volutator, Hediste diversicolor, Ecotoxicology, Fish farming, Sea lice medicine
0044-8486
102-108
Mayor, D.J.
461ddc80-a25d-45b5-873f-9cbf4aa93828
Solan, M.
a05395b0-1720-4ceb-a8a9-6d85f643dc51
Martinez, I.
9520edc4-06c3-4fcd-b038-9da5d1148025
Murray, L.
bfd60879-aefc-4bb8-abc2-9c10f1646a57
McMillan, H.
f15a3381-3d4a-40c7-a199-89d1f5fb6a14
Paton, G.I.
224a812c-f169-4924-9abb-94056b8f8ba2
Killham, K.
463d13c1-47be-4c29-94ae-b960ea4fd898
Mayor, D.J.
461ddc80-a25d-45b5-873f-9cbf4aa93828
Solan, M.
a05395b0-1720-4ceb-a8a9-6d85f643dc51
Martinez, I.
9520edc4-06c3-4fcd-b038-9da5d1148025
Murray, L.
bfd60879-aefc-4bb8-abc2-9c10f1646a57
McMillan, H.
f15a3381-3d4a-40c7-a199-89d1f5fb6a14
Paton, G.I.
224a812c-f169-4924-9abb-94056b8f8ba2
Killham, K.
463d13c1-47be-4c29-94ae-b960ea4fd898

Mayor, D.J., Solan, M., Martinez, I., Murray, L., McMillan, H., Paton, G.I. and Killham, K. (2008) Acute toxicity of some treatments commonly used by the salmonid aquaculture industry to Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor: whole sediment bioassay tests. Aquaculture, 285 (1-4), 102-108. (doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.08.008).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The commercial farming of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, typically requires the periodic application of copper-based anti-foulants and chemotherapeutic treatments, including Slice®, Excis®, Salmosan® and Aquatet®/Tetraplex® to reduce the effects of biological pests. Information on the environmental safety of any chemical agent released into the aquatic environment must be obtained before a product can be licensed for use, but such information typically exists only in confidential technical reports which can be difficult to obtain. Furthermore, different test organisms, experimental protocols and reporting procedures make comparison of the various compounds/studies difficult. Here we present a series of 10-day, whole sediment bioassay tests that determined the concentrations of emamectin benzoate (EB), cypermethrin (CP), azamethiphos (AZ) and oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC), the active ingredients of the aforementioned chemotherapeutants, and copper, that caused 50% mortality (LC50) in the non-target benthic crustacean, Corophium volutator. Additional whole sediment bioassays of identical design were conducted with the non-target polychaete worm, Hediste diversicolor exposed to copper and EB. C. volutator demonstrated similar sensitivity to EB and AZ, with LC50s of 153 (95% confidence intervals, CI = 119–198) and 182 (95% CI = 152–217) µg active ingredient [kg wet sediment]? 1 respectively. OTC caused 50% mortality of C. volutator at a concentration of 414 (95% CI = 233–734) µg OTC [kg wet sediment]? 1. The LC50 for H. diversicolor exposed to EB was 1368 (95% CI = 744–2516) µg EB [kg wet sediment]? 1, an order of magnitude greater than that for C. volutator. Conversely, C. volutator was able to tolerate much higher concentrations of copper than H. diversicolor, with LC50s of 193,326 (95% CI = 171,034–218,523) and 74,988 (95% CI = 61,192–91,895) µg Cu [kg wet sediment]? 1 respectively. CP was the most toxic to C. volutator of all compounds investigated, causing 50% mortality at a concentration of 5 (95% CI = 4–6) µg CP [kg wet sediment]? 1. These data allow direct inter-comparison of the toxicities of some of the commonly applied treatments used by the global salmonid aquaculture industry.

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More information

Published date: 7 December 2008
Keywords: Sediment bioassay, Corophium volutator, Hediste diversicolor, Ecotoxicology, Fish farming, Sea lice medicine
Organisations: Ocean and Earth Science, Marine Biogeochemistry

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 380741
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/380741
ISSN: 0044-8486
PURE UUID: 00caac96-ceaa-4cc3-baad-f1dcb3cf19e5

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 19 Aug 2015 13:22
Last modified: 15 Jul 2019 21:07

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