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Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition
Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition
Background: growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.

Methods: of 5551 children with collected growth and infant-feeding data in a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development), body composition measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis at the age of 5–6 years was available for 2227 children. We assessed how feeding (duration of full breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) and conditional variables representing linear growth and relative weight gain were associated with childhood fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM).

Results: birth weight was positively associated with both FFM and FM in childhood, and more strongly with FFM than FM. Faster linear growth and faster relative weight gain at all ages in infancy were positively associated with childhood FFM and FM. The associations with FM were stronger for relative weight gain than for linear growth (FM z score: β coefficient 0.23 (95% con 0.19 to 0.26), P<0.001 and 0.14 (0.11 to 0.17), P<0.001 per s.d. change in relative weight gain and linear growth between 1 and 3 months, respectively). Compared with full breastfeeding <1 month, full breastfeeding >6 months was associated with lower FM (FM z score: -0.17 (-0.28 to -0.05), P=0.005) and lower FFM (FFM z score: -0.13 (-0.23 to -0.03), P=0.015), as was the introduction of complementary feeding >6 months (FM z score: -0.22 (-0.38 to -0.07), P=0.004), compared with <4 months.

Conclusions: faster infant weight gain is associated with a healthier childhood body composition when it is caused by faster linear growth. Full breastfeeding >6 months and introduction of complementary feeding >6 months are associated with lower childhood FM.
0307-0565
586-592
de Beer, M.
c442f2ca-baa4-4180-a8e5-0a2ad2a400f1
Vrijkotte, T.G.
177f52d7-c609-4ef7-91cd-4b85ba022fae
Fall, C.
7171a105-34f5-4131-89d7-1aa639893b18
van Eijsden, M.
8e197536-e04e-4e86-9fde-a1eded6e31ca
Osmond, C.
2677bf85-494f-4a78-adf8-580e1b8acb81
Gemke, R.J.
d076dad6-6e7e-4779-814c-98d520d2c611
de Beer, M.
c442f2ca-baa4-4180-a8e5-0a2ad2a400f1
Vrijkotte, T.G.
177f52d7-c609-4ef7-91cd-4b85ba022fae
Fall, C.
7171a105-34f5-4131-89d7-1aa639893b18
van Eijsden, M.
8e197536-e04e-4e86-9fde-a1eded6e31ca
Osmond, C.
2677bf85-494f-4a78-adf8-580e1b8acb81
Gemke, R.J.
d076dad6-6e7e-4779-814c-98d520d2c611

de Beer, M., Vrijkotte, T.G., Fall, C., van Eijsden, M., Osmond, C. and Gemke, R.J. (2015) Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition. International Journal of Obesity, 39 (4), 586-592. (doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.200). (PMID:25435256)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.

Methods: of 5551 children with collected growth and infant-feeding data in a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development), body composition measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis at the age of 5–6 years was available for 2227 children. We assessed how feeding (duration of full breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) and conditional variables representing linear growth and relative weight gain were associated with childhood fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM).

Results: birth weight was positively associated with both FFM and FM in childhood, and more strongly with FFM than FM. Faster linear growth and faster relative weight gain at all ages in infancy were positively associated with childhood FFM and FM. The associations with FM were stronger for relative weight gain than for linear growth (FM z score: β coefficient 0.23 (95% con 0.19 to 0.26), P<0.001 and 0.14 (0.11 to 0.17), P<0.001 per s.d. change in relative weight gain and linear growth between 1 and 3 months, respectively). Compared with full breastfeeding <1 month, full breastfeeding >6 months was associated with lower FM (FM z score: -0.17 (-0.28 to -0.05), P=0.005) and lower FFM (FFM z score: -0.13 (-0.23 to -0.03), P=0.015), as was the introduction of complementary feeding >6 months (FM z score: -0.22 (-0.38 to -0.07), P=0.004), compared with <4 months.

Conclusions: faster infant weight gain is associated with a healthier childhood body composition when it is caused by faster linear growth. Full breastfeeding >6 months and introduction of complementary feeding >6 months are associated with lower childhood FM.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 14 October 2014
Published date: April 2015
Organisations: MRC Life-Course Epidemiology Unit

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 381267
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/381267
ISSN: 0307-0565
PURE UUID: f1ccbea4-38c7-412c-a025-964b1054cccc
ORCID for C. Fall: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4402-5552
ORCID for C. Osmond: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9054-4655

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Date deposited: 25 Sep 2015 14:38
Last modified: 10 Jan 2022 02:38

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Contributors

Author: M. de Beer
Author: T.G. Vrijkotte
Author: C. Fall ORCID iD
Author: M. van Eijsden
Author: C. Osmond ORCID iD
Author: R.J. Gemke

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