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Associations of infant milk feed type on early postnatal growth of offspring exposed and unexposed to gestational diabetes in utero

Associations of infant milk feed type on early postnatal growth of offspring exposed and unexposed to gestational diabetes in utero
Associations of infant milk feed type on early postnatal growth of offspring exposed and unexposed to gestational diabetes in utero
Purpose

Infants on prolonged breastfeeding are known to grow slower during the first year of life. It is still unclear if such effects are similar in offspring exposed to gestational diabetes (GDM) in utero. We examined the associations of infant milk feeding on postnatal growth from birth till 36 months of age in offspring exposed and unexposed to GDM.

Methods

Pregnant mothers undertook 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests at 26–28 weeks of gestation for GDM diagnosis. Up to 9 measurements of offspring weight and length were collected from birth till 36 months, and interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to ascertain the duration of breastfeeding.

Results

There was a statistically significant interaction between GDM status and breastmilk intake by any (p interaction = 0.038) or exclusive/predominant breastfeeding (p interaction = 0.035) for the outcome of conditional weight gain. In offspring of non-GDM mothers (n = 835), greater breastmilk intake (BF ? 4 milk months) was associated with lower conditional gains in weight [B (95 % CI) ?0.48 (?0.58, ?0.28); p < 0.001] within the first year of life, as well as decreasing weight SDS velocity [?0.01 (?0.02, ?0.005); p < 0.001] and BMI SDS velocity [?0.008 (0.01, ?0.002); p = 0.008] across age in the first 36 months. In offspring of GDM mothers (n = 181), however, greater breastmilk intake was associated with increased conditional gains in weight [0.72 (0.23, 1.20); p = 0.029] and BMI SDS [0.49 (0.04, 0.95); p = 0.04] in the first 6 months and did not demonstrate the decreasing weight and BMI SDS velocity observed in offspring of non-GDM mothers.

Conclusions

The reduced weight gain in the first year of life conferred by greater breastmilk intake in non-GDM children was not observed in GDM children.
1436-6207
Aris, I.M.
ee15a46e-ead3-4b4a-a208-d39038a85480
Soh, S.E.
00a5ad13-4c5b-4fad-aaa9-d080d9aa63e8
Tint, M.T.
02d6a006-3b94-4328-b3c3-147a618d66c3
Saw, S.M.
0684517e-f27e-49f0-98c3-7630e8fd1bbd
Rajadurai, V.S.
3b5f8939-462c-4200-9146-a600d4e2e62a
Godfrey, K.M.
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Gluckman, P.D.
492295c0-ef71-4871-ad5a-771c98e1059a
Yap, F.
2c155211-be02-4dd5-9528-16a714e77452
Chong, Y.S.
b50c99c9-4d83-46c5-a1c7-23f9a553ab8a
Lee, Y.S.
829a41bb-945c-49cd-ad12-0f3d9c2782c6
Aris, I.M.
ee15a46e-ead3-4b4a-a208-d39038a85480
Soh, S.E.
00a5ad13-4c5b-4fad-aaa9-d080d9aa63e8
Tint, M.T.
02d6a006-3b94-4328-b3c3-147a618d66c3
Saw, S.M.
0684517e-f27e-49f0-98c3-7630e8fd1bbd
Rajadurai, V.S.
3b5f8939-462c-4200-9146-a600d4e2e62a
Godfrey, K.M.
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Gluckman, P.D.
492295c0-ef71-4871-ad5a-771c98e1059a
Yap, F.
2c155211-be02-4dd5-9528-16a714e77452
Chong, Y.S.
b50c99c9-4d83-46c5-a1c7-23f9a553ab8a
Lee, Y.S.
829a41bb-945c-49cd-ad12-0f3d9c2782c6

Aris, I.M., Soh, S.E., Tint, M.T., Saw, S.M., Rajadurai, V.S., Godfrey, K.M., Gluckman, P.D., Yap, F., Chong, Y.S. and Lee, Y.S. (2015) Associations of infant milk feed type on early postnatal growth of offspring exposed and unexposed to gestational diabetes in utero. European Journal of Nutrition. (doi:10.1007/s00394-015-1057-0). (PMID:26415764)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Purpose

Infants on prolonged breastfeeding are known to grow slower during the first year of life. It is still unclear if such effects are similar in offspring exposed to gestational diabetes (GDM) in utero. We examined the associations of infant milk feeding on postnatal growth from birth till 36 months of age in offspring exposed and unexposed to GDM.

Methods

Pregnant mothers undertook 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests at 26–28 weeks of gestation for GDM diagnosis. Up to 9 measurements of offspring weight and length were collected from birth till 36 months, and interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to ascertain the duration of breastfeeding.

Results

There was a statistically significant interaction between GDM status and breastmilk intake by any (p interaction = 0.038) or exclusive/predominant breastfeeding (p interaction = 0.035) for the outcome of conditional weight gain. In offspring of non-GDM mothers (n = 835), greater breastmilk intake (BF ? 4 milk months) was associated with lower conditional gains in weight [B (95 % CI) ?0.48 (?0.58, ?0.28); p < 0.001] within the first year of life, as well as decreasing weight SDS velocity [?0.01 (?0.02, ?0.005); p < 0.001] and BMI SDS velocity [?0.008 (0.01, ?0.002); p = 0.008] across age in the first 36 months. In offspring of GDM mothers (n = 181), however, greater breastmilk intake was associated with increased conditional gains in weight [0.72 (0.23, 1.20); p = 0.029] and BMI SDS [0.49 (0.04, 0.95); p = 0.04] in the first 6 months and did not demonstrate the decreasing weight and BMI SDS velocity observed in offspring of non-GDM mothers.

Conclusions

The reduced weight gain in the first year of life conferred by greater breastmilk intake in non-GDM children was not observed in GDM children.

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More information

Published date: 28 September 2015
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 382359
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/382359
ISSN: 1436-6207
PURE UUID: 40d060ef-56bd-4819-bb9a-57d9f88caf2a
ORCID for K.M. Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 28 Oct 2015 11:19
Last modified: 15 Aug 2019 00:55

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Contributors

Author: I.M. Aris
Author: S.E. Soh
Author: M.T. Tint
Author: S.M. Saw
Author: V.S. Rajadurai
Author: K.M. Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: P.D. Gluckman
Author: F. Yap
Author: Y.S. Chong
Author: Y.S. Lee

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