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Role and optimization of the active oxide layer in TiO2-based RRAM

Role and optimization of the active oxide layer in TiO2-based RRAM
Role and optimization of the active oxide layer in TiO2-based RRAM
TiO2 is commonly used as the active switching layer in resistive random access memory. The electrical characteristics of these devices are directly related to the fundamental conditions inside the TiO2 layer and at the interfaces between it and the surrounding electrodes. However, it is complex to disentangle the effects of film “bulk” properties and interface phenomena. The present work uses hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) at different excitation energies to distinguish between these regimes. Changes are found to affect the entire thin film, but the most dramatic effects are confined to an interface. These changes are connected to oxygen ions moving and redistributing within the film. Based on the HAXPES results, post-deposition annealing of the TiO2 thin film was investigated as an optimisation pathway in order to reach an ideal compromise between device resistivity and lifetime. The structural and chemical changes upon annealing are investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and are further supported by a range of bulk and surface sensitive characterisation methods. In summary, it is shown that the management of oxygen content and interface quality is intrinsically important to device behavior and that careful annealing procedures are a powerful device optimisation technique.
1616-301X
507-513
Regoutz, A.
f10acbf6-a56e-4193-88d5-5167f3ecb385
Gupta, I.
11f9ea1a-e38a-45d4-930d-96ac78b3d734
Serb, A.
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Khiat, A.
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Borgatti, F
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Lee, T.L.
fde36da0-349e-4bdc-8a17-48ce21d59697
Schlueter, C.
19628543-d30e-4782-848b-81c9ececd7ad
Torelli, P.
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Gobaut, B.
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Light, M.
cf57314e-6856-491b-a8d2-2dffc452e161
Carta, D.
dfbbc11d-f218-4a52-ae69-33c7b7084f5b
Pearce, S.
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Panaccione, G.
174f349e-dddc-4cb5-a0a6-0fdd09a0b49f
Prodromakis, T.
d58c9c10-9d25-4d22-b155-06c8437acfbf
Regoutz, A.
f10acbf6-a56e-4193-88d5-5167f3ecb385
Gupta, I.
11f9ea1a-e38a-45d4-930d-96ac78b3d734
Serb, A.
30f5ec26-f51d-42b3-85fd-0325a27a792c
Khiat, A.
bf549ddd-5356-4a7d-9c12-eb6c0d904050
Borgatti, F
6caeab41-5081-444c-8f2f-0cbc95ac780b
Lee, T.L.
fde36da0-349e-4bdc-8a17-48ce21d59697
Schlueter, C.
19628543-d30e-4782-848b-81c9ececd7ad
Torelli, P.
fb1dc250-a582-4a47-83c2-fa3f42cd132a
Gobaut, B.
fcc603e7-2ea7-4a6c-929b-1ce083883eff
Light, M.
cf57314e-6856-491b-a8d2-2dffc452e161
Carta, D.
dfbbc11d-f218-4a52-ae69-33c7b7084f5b
Pearce, S.
54891fdd-25ca-4768-ab4d-27f51be1e3e9
Panaccione, G.
174f349e-dddc-4cb5-a0a6-0fdd09a0b49f
Prodromakis, T.
d58c9c10-9d25-4d22-b155-06c8437acfbf

Regoutz, A., Gupta, I., Serb, A., Khiat, A., Borgatti, F, Lee, T.L., Schlueter, C., Torelli, P., Gobaut, B., Light, M., Carta, D., Pearce, S., Panaccione, G. and Prodromakis, T. (2016) Role and optimization of the active oxide layer in TiO2-based RRAM Advanced Functional Materials, 26, (4), pp. 507-513.

Record type: Article

Abstract

TiO2 is commonly used as the active switching layer in resistive random access memory. The electrical characteristics of these devices are directly related to the fundamental conditions inside the TiO2 layer and at the interfaces between it and the surrounding electrodes. However, it is complex to disentangle the effects of film “bulk” properties and interface phenomena. The present work uses hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) at different excitation energies to distinguish between these regimes. Changes are found to affect the entire thin film, but the most dramatic effects are confined to an interface. These changes are connected to oxygen ions moving and redistributing within the film. Based on the HAXPES results, post-deposition annealing of the TiO2 thin film was investigated as an optimisation pathway in order to reach an ideal compromise between device resistivity and lifetime. The structural and chemical changes upon annealing are investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and are further supported by a range of bulk and surface sensitive characterisation methods. In summary, it is shown that the management of oxygen content and interface quality is intrinsically important to device behavior and that careful annealing procedures are a powerful device optimisation technique.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 15 December 2015
Published date: 25 January 2016
Organisations: Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 383280
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/383280
ISSN: 1616-301X
PURE UUID: b52cb83d-801c-4fe9-9d73-1003c1608f70
ORCID for M. Light: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0585-0843

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Date deposited: 11 Nov 2015 17:23
Last modified: 09 Nov 2017 21:35

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Contributors

Author: A. Regoutz
Author: I. Gupta
Author: A. Serb
Author: A. Khiat
Author: F Borgatti
Author: T.L. Lee
Author: C. Schlueter
Author: P. Torelli
Author: B. Gobaut
Author: M. Light ORCID iD
Author: D. Carta
Author: S. Pearce
Author: G. Panaccione
Author: T. Prodromakis

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