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Common airborne fungi induce species-specific effects on upper airway inflammatory and remodelling responses

Common airborne fungi induce species-specific effects on upper airway inflammatory and remodelling responses
Common airborne fungi induce species-specific effects on upper airway inflammatory and remodelling responses
OBJECTIVE: Whilst the exact cause of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains elusive, it is clear that both inflammation and remodelling are key disease processes. Environmental fungi have been linked to airway inflammation in CRS; however, their role in the pathogenesis of this condition remains controversial. The current consensus suggests that whilst fungi may not be directly causative, it is likely that CRS patients have deficits in their innate and potentially acquired immunity, which in turn may modify their ability to react to fungi. This study used a nasal polyp explant tissue stimulation model to study the inflammatory and remodelling responses related to challenge with common airborne fungal species.

METHODS: Ex vivo nasal polyp tissue from six well phenotyped CRSwNP patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery was stimulated with 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sphaerospermum and Penicillium notatum and compared with unchallenged polyp tissue as control. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); and pro-remodelling cytokines transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the polyp supernatant.

RESULTS: Aspergillus niger stimulation increased pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, GM-CSF and IL-6 whilst having little effect on the remodelling cytokines bFGF and TGF-b1. In contrast, stimulation with Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium notatum reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, but induced a dose-dependent increase in remodelling cytokines TGF-b1 and bFGF.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that common airborne fungi induce species-specific effects on the upper airway inflammatory and remodelling responses. These findings provide further immunological evidence of a disease-modifying role for fungi in CRS.
0300-0729
51-55
Sproson, E.L.
0566c7e7-0e23-4549-b37e-9e16cf810ee0
Thomas, K.M.
67f871aa-d5cd-44a7-b2db-6e12da18e72c
Lau, L.C.
2af8045d-6162-4939-aba7-28dd2f60f6a8
Harries, P.G.
b5e177a3-eb4d-4239-b0b5-968c39796fcf
Howarth, P.H.
ff19c8c4-86b0-4a88-8f76-b3d87f142a21
Salib, R.J.
d6fde1c1-5b5e-43f7-ae1c-42cce6a0c9fc
Sproson, E.L.
0566c7e7-0e23-4549-b37e-9e16cf810ee0
Thomas, K.M.
67f871aa-d5cd-44a7-b2db-6e12da18e72c
Lau, L.C.
2af8045d-6162-4939-aba7-28dd2f60f6a8
Harries, P.G.
b5e177a3-eb4d-4239-b0b5-968c39796fcf
Howarth, P.H.
ff19c8c4-86b0-4a88-8f76-b3d87f142a21
Salib, R.J.
d6fde1c1-5b5e-43f7-ae1c-42cce6a0c9fc

Sproson, E.L., Thomas, K.M., Lau, L.C., Harries, P.G., Howarth, P.H. and Salib, R.J. (2016) Common airborne fungi induce species-specific effects on upper airway inflammatory and remodelling responses. Rhinology, 54 (1), 51-55. (doi:10.4193/Rhin14.278). (PMID:26501134)

Record type: Article

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Whilst the exact cause of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains elusive, it is clear that both inflammation and remodelling are key disease processes. Environmental fungi have been linked to airway inflammation in CRS; however, their role in the pathogenesis of this condition remains controversial. The current consensus suggests that whilst fungi may not be directly causative, it is likely that CRS patients have deficits in their innate and potentially acquired immunity, which in turn may modify their ability to react to fungi. This study used a nasal polyp explant tissue stimulation model to study the inflammatory and remodelling responses related to challenge with common airborne fungal species.

METHODS: Ex vivo nasal polyp tissue from six well phenotyped CRSwNP patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery was stimulated with 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sphaerospermum and Penicillium notatum and compared with unchallenged polyp tissue as control. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); and pro-remodelling cytokines transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the polyp supernatant.

RESULTS: Aspergillus niger stimulation increased pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, GM-CSF and IL-6 whilst having little effect on the remodelling cytokines bFGF and TGF-b1. In contrast, stimulation with Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium notatum reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, but induced a dose-dependent increase in remodelling cytokines TGF-b1 and bFGF.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that common airborne fungi induce species-specific effects on the upper airway inflammatory and remodelling responses. These findings provide further immunological evidence of a disease-modifying role for fungi in CRS.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 25 October 2015
Published date: March 2016
Organisations: Clinical & Experimental Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 384154
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/384154
ISSN: 0300-0729
PURE UUID: 0a694669-fd8f-4e67-bea5-581a9df4f06e
ORCID for R.J. Salib: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6753-7844

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Date deposited: 15 Dec 2015 14:24
Last modified: 12 Oct 2019 00:37

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