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Dynamics of spectral bio-indicators and their correlations with light use efficiency using directional observations at a Douglas-fir forest

Dynamics of spectral bio-indicators and their correlations with light use efficiency using directional observations at a Douglas-fir forest
Dynamics of spectral bio-indicators and their correlations with light use efficiency using directional observations at a Douglas-fir forest
The carbon science community must rely on satellite remote sensing to obtain global estimates of photosynthetic activity, typically expressed as net primary production (NPP), gross primary production (GPP) or light use efficiency (LUE). The photochemical reflectance index (PRI), calculated as a normalized difference reflectance index using a physiologically active green band (~531 nm) and another physiologically insensitive green reference band (~570 nm), denoted as PRI(570), has been confirmed in many studies as being strongly related to LUE. Here, we examined the potential of utilizing PRI(570) observations under different illumination conditions for canopy LUE estimation of a forest. In order to evaluate this, directional hyperspectral reflectance measurements were collected continuously throughout the daytime periods using an automated spectroradiometer in conjunction with tower-based eddy covariance fluxes and environmental measurements at a coastal conifer forest in British Columbia, Canada throughout the 2006 growing season. A parameter calculated as the PRI(570) difference (dPRI(570)) between shaded versus sunlit canopy foliage sectors showed a strong correlation to tower-based LUE. The seasonal pattern for this correlation produced a dramatic change from high negative (r ~ ?0.80) values in the springtime and early fall to high positive values (r ~ 0.80) during the summer months, which could represent the seasonality of physiological characteristics and environmental factors. Although the PRI(570) successfully tracked canopy LUE, one or both of its green bands (~531 and 570 nm) used to calculate the PRI are unavailable on most existing and planned near-term satellites. Therefore, we examined the potential to use 24 other spectral indexes for LUE monitoring that might be correlated to PRI, and thereby a substitute for it. We also continued our previous investigations into the influence of illumination conditions on the observed PRI(570) and other indexes. Among the 24 indexes examined, three PRI indexes using different reference bands (488, 551 and 705 nm) showed high correlations to the traditional PRI(570), especially PRI(551) and PRI(705). This indicates three additional PRI variations for LUE monitoring if the traditional reference band at 570 nm is not available but the 531 nm band is available. Five other indexes also yielded high correlations to PRI(570): Dmax and DM705, two indexes calculated from derivative reflectance spectra; a simple ratio of reflectance values at 685 nm and 655 nm (SR685_655); and a double-peak optical index (DPI). The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of these eight indexes and PRI(570) were explored. All of these indexes except DPI expressed linear dependence on available sunlight and more strongly expressed diurnal dynamics in April than in August during summer drought. The differences for shaded versus sunlit canopy foliage sectors were also calculated for the eight indexes, and their correlations to canopy LUE across the season were examined. The performances were similar for the most successful and seasonally stable indexes: dPRI(551), dPRI(705) and dPRI(570). The other five indexes showed good correlation to LUE in some but not all the months, and the months with high correlations varied among them.
1361-6501
1-15
Cheng, Y.B.
424c7865-07a5-4272-b3b1-532aeaeac8b8
Middleton, E.M.
0829371b-8d56-4be7-b643-1746d1d65bab
Hilker, T.
c7fb75b8-320d-49df-84ba-96c9ee523d40
Coops, N.C.
b10725db-8b4c-4338-92b8-ead49cebc80e
Black, T.A.
735fa71a-428a-4d7e-9ddc-496cb7eafa30
Krishnan, P.
ff0e82c1-8887-446c-bcad-95854b06f138
Cheng, Y.B.
424c7865-07a5-4272-b3b1-532aeaeac8b8
Middleton, E.M.
0829371b-8d56-4be7-b643-1746d1d65bab
Hilker, T.
c7fb75b8-320d-49df-84ba-96c9ee523d40
Coops, N.C.
b10725db-8b4c-4338-92b8-ead49cebc80e
Black, T.A.
735fa71a-428a-4d7e-9ddc-496cb7eafa30
Krishnan, P.
ff0e82c1-8887-446c-bcad-95854b06f138

Cheng, Y.B., Middleton, E.M., Hilker, T., Coops, N.C., Black, T.A. and Krishnan, P. (2009) Dynamics of spectral bio-indicators and their correlations with light use efficiency using directional observations at a Douglas-fir forest. Measurement Science and Technology, 20 (9), 1-15. (doi:10.1088/0957-0233/20/9/095107).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The carbon science community must rely on satellite remote sensing to obtain global estimates of photosynthetic activity, typically expressed as net primary production (NPP), gross primary production (GPP) or light use efficiency (LUE). The photochemical reflectance index (PRI), calculated as a normalized difference reflectance index using a physiologically active green band (~531 nm) and another physiologically insensitive green reference band (~570 nm), denoted as PRI(570), has been confirmed in many studies as being strongly related to LUE. Here, we examined the potential of utilizing PRI(570) observations under different illumination conditions for canopy LUE estimation of a forest. In order to evaluate this, directional hyperspectral reflectance measurements were collected continuously throughout the daytime periods using an automated spectroradiometer in conjunction with tower-based eddy covariance fluxes and environmental measurements at a coastal conifer forest in British Columbia, Canada throughout the 2006 growing season. A parameter calculated as the PRI(570) difference (dPRI(570)) between shaded versus sunlit canopy foliage sectors showed a strong correlation to tower-based LUE. The seasonal pattern for this correlation produced a dramatic change from high negative (r ~ ?0.80) values in the springtime and early fall to high positive values (r ~ 0.80) during the summer months, which could represent the seasonality of physiological characteristics and environmental factors. Although the PRI(570) successfully tracked canopy LUE, one or both of its green bands (~531 and 570 nm) used to calculate the PRI are unavailable on most existing and planned near-term satellites. Therefore, we examined the potential to use 24 other spectral indexes for LUE monitoring that might be correlated to PRI, and thereby a substitute for it. We also continued our previous investigations into the influence of illumination conditions on the observed PRI(570) and other indexes. Among the 24 indexes examined, three PRI indexes using different reference bands (488, 551 and 705 nm) showed high correlations to the traditional PRI(570), especially PRI(551) and PRI(705). This indicates three additional PRI variations for LUE monitoring if the traditional reference band at 570 nm is not available but the 531 nm band is available. Five other indexes also yielded high correlations to PRI(570): Dmax and DM705, two indexes calculated from derivative reflectance spectra; a simple ratio of reflectance values at 685 nm and 655 nm (SR685_655); and a double-peak optical index (DPI). The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of these eight indexes and PRI(570) were explored. All of these indexes except DPI expressed linear dependence on available sunlight and more strongly expressed diurnal dynamics in April than in August during summer drought. The differences for shaded versus sunlit canopy foliage sectors were also calculated for the eight indexes, and their correlations to canopy LUE across the season were examined. The performances were similar for the most successful and seasonally stable indexes: dPRI(551), dPRI(705) and dPRI(570). The other five indexes showed good correlation to LUE in some but not all the months, and the months with high correlations varied among them.

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Published date: 30 July 2009
Organisations: Earth Surface Dynamics

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 384662
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/384662
ISSN: 1361-6501
PURE UUID: b942a859-2802-4e43-afbf-c525033ec49b

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Date deposited: 15 Apr 2016 15:05
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 20:03

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