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Linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during childhood: associations with cardiometabolic and cognitive outcomes in adolescent Indian children

Linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during childhood: associations with cardiometabolic and cognitive outcomes in adolescent Indian children
Linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during childhood: associations with cardiometabolic and cognitive outcomes in adolescent Indian children
Background: We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability.

Methods: Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years) had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%), fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores) representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1–2, 2–5, 5–9.5 and 9.5–13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages.

Results: Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5–9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]). Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5–9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40]) and HOMA-IR (5–9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5–13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]). Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years) in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function.

Conclusion: This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities.
1932-6203
1-14
Krishnaveni, G.V.
e9cc468a-8262-4dde-8eba-e047c68a3dce
Veena, S.R.
2acd1a9f-ce06-4cd2-bbdb-8f0057308e0e
Srinivasan, K.
e97abff3-2c9b-423e-bcb7-3bde3508101d
Osmond, C.
2677bf85-494f-4a78-adf8-580e1b8acb81
Fall, C.H.
7171a105-34f5-4131-89d7-1aa639893b18
Krishnaveni, G.V.
e9cc468a-8262-4dde-8eba-e047c68a3dce
Veena, S.R.
2acd1a9f-ce06-4cd2-bbdb-8f0057308e0e
Srinivasan, K.
e97abff3-2c9b-423e-bcb7-3bde3508101d
Osmond, C.
2677bf85-494f-4a78-adf8-580e1b8acb81
Fall, C.H.
7171a105-34f5-4131-89d7-1aa639893b18

Krishnaveni, G.V., Veena, S.R., Srinivasan, K., Osmond, C. and Fall, C.H. (2015) Linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during childhood: associations with cardiometabolic and cognitive outcomes in adolescent Indian children. PLoS ONE, 10 (11), 1-14. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143231). (PMID:26575994)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability.

Methods: Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years) had detailed anthropometry and measurements of body fat (fat%), fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, blood pressure and cognitive function. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and statistically independent measures (conditional SD scores) representing linear growth, and fat and lean tissue gain during birth-1, 1–2, 2–5, 5–9.5 and 9.5–13.5 years in 414 of the children with measurements at all these ages.

Results: Birth length and linear growth at all ages were positively associated with current height. Fat gain, particularly during 5–9.5 years was positively associated with fat% at 13.5 years (0.44 SD per SD [99.9% confidence interval: 0.29,0.58]). Greater fat gain during mid-late childhood was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (5–9.5 years: 0.23 SD per SD [0.07,0.40]) and HOMA-IR (5–9.5 years: 0.24 [0.08,0.40], 9.5–13.5 years: 0.22 [0.06,0.38]). Greater infant growth (up to age 2 years) in linear, fat or lean components was unrelated to cardiometabolic risk factors or cognitive function.

Conclusion: This study suggests that factors that increase linear, fat and lean growth in infancy have no adverse cardiometabolic effects in this population. Factors that increase fat gain in mid-late childhood may increase cardiometabolic risk, without any benefit to cognitive abilities.

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Accepted/In Press date: 2 November 2015
Published date: 17 November 2015
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 385329
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/385329
ISSN: 1932-6203
PURE UUID: ea61c9b3-c480-4760-b644-53d310a71d51
ORCID for C. Osmond: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9054-4655
ORCID for C.H. Fall: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4402-5552

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Date deposited: 19 Jan 2016 09:40
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 16:45

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Contributors

Author: G.V. Krishnaveni
Author: S.R. Veena
Author: K. Srinivasan
Author: C. Osmond ORCID iD
Author: C.H. Fall ORCID iD

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