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Sexually dimorphic response to feeding mode in the growth of infants

Sexually dimorphic response to feeding mode in the growth of infants
Sexually dimorphic response to feeding mode in the growth of infants
BACKGROUND: The relation between infant feeding and growth has been extensively evaluated, but studies examining sex differences in the influence of infant milk feeding on growth are limited.

OBJECTIVE: We examined the interaction of infant feeding and sex in relation to infant growth and compared growth trajectories in breastfed and formula-fed boys and girls.

DESIGN: In 932 infants in a Singapore mother-offspring cohort, feeding practices in the first 6 mo were classified into the breastfeeding group (BF), mixed feeding group (MF), and formula feeding group (FF). Infant weight and length were measured and converted to WHO standards for weight-for-age z scores (WAZs) and length-for-age z scores (LAZs). Differences in WAZ and LAZ from birth to 6 mo, 6 to 12 mo, and 12 to 24 mo of age were calculated. Three-way interactions were examined between feeding mode, sex, and age intervals for WAZ and LAZ changes, with adjustment for confounders.

RESULTS: The interaction between feeding mode, sex, and age intervals was significant for LAZ changes (P = 0.003) but not WAZ changes (P = 0.103) after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with BF girls, BF boys showed similar LAZ gain (+0.28 compared with +0.39, P = 0.544) from 0 to 6 mo of age but greater LAZ gain from 6 to 12 mo of age (+0.39 compared with -0.10, P = 0.008). From 0 to 6 mo of age, FF boys and girls showed greater LAZ gains than their BF counterparts; from 6 to 12 mo of age, FF girls showed higher LAZ gain (+0.25 compared with -0.10, P = 0.031) than BF girls, which was not seen in boys.

CONCLUSIONS: During infancy, there is a sexually dimorphic growth response to the mode of infant milk feeding, raising questions about whether formula feeding ought to remain sex neutral. However, further investigations on sex-specific feeding and infant growth are warranted before a conclusive message can be drawn based on our current findings. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
0002-9165
1-8
Cheng, T.S.
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Loy, S.L.
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Cheung, Y.B.
13219412-856a-4418-839a-d890f3522ba5
Chan, J.K.
9d7dc149-6fec-483b-b596-4b1f7081ce3e
Pang, W.W.
ea58c80d-6316-4143-ad93-113b3b0c2072
Godfrey, K.M.
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Gluckman, P.D.
492295c0-ef71-4871-ad5a-771c98e1059a
Kwek, K.
1a9b6c6e-a5e9-40a2-9bfe-44c2cea62a98
Saw, S.M.
0684517e-f27e-49f0-98c3-7630e8fd1bbd
Chong, Y.S.
b50c99c9-4d83-46c5-a1c7-23f9a553ab8a
Lee, Y.S.
829a41bb-945c-49cd-ad12-0f3d9c2782c6
Lek, N.
a15e37b6-a84f-4cfa-b755-79ccf4b7f54e
Yap, F.
2c155211-be02-4dd5-9528-16a714e77452
Cheng, T.S.
8c2e7902-92c9-4508-8ff1-8273b7b0951e
Loy, S.L.
967951b0-5a39-4824-abee-abf33a2cd309
Cheung, Y.B.
13219412-856a-4418-839a-d890f3522ba5
Chan, J.K.
9d7dc149-6fec-483b-b596-4b1f7081ce3e
Pang, W.W.
ea58c80d-6316-4143-ad93-113b3b0c2072
Godfrey, K.M.
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Gluckman, P.D.
492295c0-ef71-4871-ad5a-771c98e1059a
Kwek, K.
1a9b6c6e-a5e9-40a2-9bfe-44c2cea62a98
Saw, S.M.
0684517e-f27e-49f0-98c3-7630e8fd1bbd
Chong, Y.S.
b50c99c9-4d83-46c5-a1c7-23f9a553ab8a
Lee, Y.S.
829a41bb-945c-49cd-ad12-0f3d9c2782c6
Lek, N.
a15e37b6-a84f-4cfa-b755-79ccf4b7f54e
Yap, F.
2c155211-be02-4dd5-9528-16a714e77452

Cheng, T.S., Loy, S.L., Cheung, Y.B., Chan, J.K., Pang, W.W., Godfrey, K.M., Gluckman, P.D., Kwek, K., Saw, S.M., Chong, Y.S., Lee, Y.S., Lek, N. and Yap, F. (2015) Sexually dimorphic response to feeding mode in the growth of infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1-8. (doi:10.3945/?ajcn.115.115493). (PMID:26718413)

Record type: Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The relation between infant feeding and growth has been extensively evaluated, but studies examining sex differences in the influence of infant milk feeding on growth are limited.

OBJECTIVE: We examined the interaction of infant feeding and sex in relation to infant growth and compared growth trajectories in breastfed and formula-fed boys and girls.

DESIGN: In 932 infants in a Singapore mother-offspring cohort, feeding practices in the first 6 mo were classified into the breastfeeding group (BF), mixed feeding group (MF), and formula feeding group (FF). Infant weight and length were measured and converted to WHO standards for weight-for-age z scores (WAZs) and length-for-age z scores (LAZs). Differences in WAZ and LAZ from birth to 6 mo, 6 to 12 mo, and 12 to 24 mo of age were calculated. Three-way interactions were examined between feeding mode, sex, and age intervals for WAZ and LAZ changes, with adjustment for confounders.

RESULTS: The interaction between feeding mode, sex, and age intervals was significant for LAZ changes (P = 0.003) but not WAZ changes (P = 0.103) after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with BF girls, BF boys showed similar LAZ gain (+0.28 compared with +0.39, P = 0.544) from 0 to 6 mo of age but greater LAZ gain from 6 to 12 mo of age (+0.39 compared with -0.10, P = 0.008). From 0 to 6 mo of age, FF boys and girls showed greater LAZ gains than their BF counterparts; from 6 to 12 mo of age, FF girls showed higher LAZ gain (+0.25 compared with -0.10, P = 0.031) than BF girls, which was not seen in boys.

CONCLUSIONS: During infancy, there is a sexually dimorphic growth response to the mode of infant milk feeding, raising questions about whether formula feeding ought to remain sex neutral. However, further investigations on sex-specific feeding and infant growth are warranted before a conclusive message can be drawn based on our current findings. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 24 November 2015
Published date: 30 December 2015
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 385447
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/385447
ISSN: 0002-9165
PURE UUID: dbefbc90-57d9-4000-8d8d-4ef41fe4d301
ORCID for K.M. Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618

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Date deposited: 19 Jan 2016 14:52
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 01:35

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Contributors

Author: T.S. Cheng
Author: S.L. Loy
Author: Y.B. Cheung
Author: J.K. Chan
Author: W.W. Pang
Author: K.M. Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: P.D. Gluckman
Author: K. Kwek
Author: S.M. Saw
Author: Y.S. Chong
Author: Y.S. Lee
Author: N. Lek
Author: F. Yap

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