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Identification, Discrimination, and Discovery of Species of Marine Planktonic Ostracods Using DNA Barcodes

Identification, Discrimination, and Discovery of Species of Marine Planktonic Ostracods Using DNA Barcodes
Identification, Discrimination, and Discovery of Species of Marine Planktonic Ostracods Using DNA Barcodes
The Ostracoda (Crustacea; Class Ostracoda) is a diverse, frequently abundant, and ecologically important component of the marine zooplankton assemblage. There are more than 200 described species of marine planktonic ostracods, many of which (especially conspecific species) can be identified only by microscopic examination and dissection of fragile morphological characters. Given the complexity of species identification and increasing lack of expert taxonomists, DNA barcodes (short DNA sequences for species discrimination and identification) are particularly useful and necessary. Results are reported from analysis of 210 specimens of 78 species of marine planktonic ostracods, including two novel species, and 51 species for which barcodes have not been previously published. Specimens were collected during 2006 to 2008 from the Atlantic, Indian, and Southern Oceans, Greenland Sea and Gulf of Alaska. Samples were collected from surface to 5,000 m using various collection devices. DNA sequence variation was analyzed for a 598 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Kimura-2-Parameter (K2P) genetic distances within described species (mean = 0.010 ± 0.017 SD) were significantly smaller than between species (0.260 + 0.080), excluding eight taxa hypothesized to comprise cryptic species due to morphological variation (especially different size forms) and/or collection from different geographic regions. These taxa showed similar K2P distance values within (0.014 + 0.026) and between (0.221 ± 0.068) species. All K2P distances > 0.1 resulted from comparisons between identified or cryptic species, with no overlap between intra- and interspecific genetic distances. A Neighbor Joining tree resolved nearly all described species analyzed, with multiple sequences forming monophyletic clusters with high bootstrap values (typically 99%). Based on taxonomically and geographically extensive sampling and analysis (albeit with small sample sizes), the COI barcode region was shown to be a valuable character for discrimination, recognition, identification, and discovery of species of marine planktonic ostracods.
1932-6203
e0146327
Angel, Martin V.
b1ed191c-1a19-4a3b-b0f4-ff7fb4f538c8
Nigro, Lisa M.
e2430e98-06bb-4bc9-addc-448c5ada0e1a
Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna
cd0b2bbe-8fa4-4a1a-8950-ac5d1067473b
Hopcroft, Russell R.
49c78665-564e-4125-beb2-0403744ba21c
Bucklin, Ann
38c4b397-140e-433c-8c2e-aaeae7f79603
Angel, Martin V.
b1ed191c-1a19-4a3b-b0f4-ff7fb4f538c8
Nigro, Lisa M.
e2430e98-06bb-4bc9-addc-448c5ada0e1a
Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna
cd0b2bbe-8fa4-4a1a-8950-ac5d1067473b
Hopcroft, Russell R.
49c78665-564e-4125-beb2-0403744ba21c
Bucklin, Ann
38c4b397-140e-433c-8c2e-aaeae7f79603

Angel, Martin V., Nigro, Lisa M., Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna, Hopcroft, Russell R. and Bucklin, Ann (2016) Identification, Discrimination, and Discovery of Species of Marine Planktonic Ostracods Using DNA Barcodes. PLoS ONE, 11 (1), e0146327. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146327).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The Ostracoda (Crustacea; Class Ostracoda) is a diverse, frequently abundant, and ecologically important component of the marine zooplankton assemblage. There are more than 200 described species of marine planktonic ostracods, many of which (especially conspecific species) can be identified only by microscopic examination and dissection of fragile morphological characters. Given the complexity of species identification and increasing lack of expert taxonomists, DNA barcodes (short DNA sequences for species discrimination and identification) are particularly useful and necessary. Results are reported from analysis of 210 specimens of 78 species of marine planktonic ostracods, including two novel species, and 51 species for which barcodes have not been previously published. Specimens were collected during 2006 to 2008 from the Atlantic, Indian, and Southern Oceans, Greenland Sea and Gulf of Alaska. Samples were collected from surface to 5,000 m using various collection devices. DNA sequence variation was analyzed for a 598 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Kimura-2-Parameter (K2P) genetic distances within described species (mean = 0.010 ± 0.017 SD) were significantly smaller than between species (0.260 + 0.080), excluding eight taxa hypothesized to comprise cryptic species due to morphological variation (especially different size forms) and/or collection from different geographic regions. These taxa showed similar K2P distance values within (0.014 + 0.026) and between (0.221 ± 0.068) species. All K2P distances > 0.1 resulted from comparisons between identified or cryptic species, with no overlap between intra- and interspecific genetic distances. A Neighbor Joining tree resolved nearly all described species analyzed, with multiple sequences forming monophyletic clusters with high bootstrap values (typically 99%). Based on taxonomically and geographically extensive sampling and analysis (albeit with small sample sizes), the COI barcode region was shown to be a valuable character for discrimination, recognition, identification, and discovery of species of marine planktonic ostracods.

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Published date: 5 January 2016
Organisations: Marine Biogeochemistry

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Local EPrints ID: 385836
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/385836
ISSN: 1932-6203
PURE UUID: c1d897be-0afb-444b-a245-e8a9e42e55ff

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Date deposited: 13 Jan 2016 10:02
Last modified: 19 Jul 2019 20:21

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