The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

A survey of VLSI implementations of tree search algorithms for MIMO detection

Bello, Ibrahim, Halak, Basel, El-Hajjar, Mohammed and Zwolinski, Mark (2016) A survey of VLSI implementations of tree search algorithms for MIMO detection Circuits Systems and Signal Processing, 35, (10), pp. 3644-3674. (doi:10.1007/s00034-015-0218-y).

Record type: Article


Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detection algorithms have received considerable research interest in recent years, as a result of the increasing need for high data-rate communications. Detection techniques range from the low-complexity linear detectors to the maximum likelihood detector, which scales exponentially with the number of transmit antennas. In between these two extremes are the tree search (TS) algorithms, such as the popular sphere decoder, which have emerged as attractive choices for implementing MIMO detection, due to their excellent performance-complexity trade-offs. In this paper, we survey some of the state-of-the-art VLSI implementations of TS algorithms and compare their results using various metrics such as the throughput and power consumption. We also present notable contributions that have been made in the last three decades in implementing TS algorithms for MIMO detection, especially with respect to achieving low-complexity, high-throughput designs. Finally, a number of design considerations and trade-offs for implementing MIMO detectors in hardware are presented.

PDF A Survey of VLSI Implementations of Tree Search Algorithms for MIMO Detection.pdf - Accepted Manuscript
Download (425kB)
PDF art_10.1007_s00034-015-0218-y.pdf - Version of Record
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.
Download (1MB)

More information

Accepted/In Press date: 29 November 2015
e-pub ahead of print date: 30 December 2015
Published date: October 2016
Organisations: Electronics & Computer Science


Local EPrints ID: 385873
ISSN: 0278-081X
PURE UUID: a6866783-eb3a-435e-8907-195297ae1039
ORCID for Mohammed El-Hajjar: ORCID iD
ORCID for Mark Zwolinski: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 13 Jan 2016 17:07
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 19:53

Export record



Author: Ibrahim Bello
Author: Basel Halak
Author: Mohammed El-Hajjar ORCID iD
Author: Mark Zwolinski ORCID iD

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.