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The effect of maternal and child early life factors on grade repetition among HIV exposed and unexposed children in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

The effect of maternal and child early life factors on grade repetition among HIV exposed and unexposed children in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
The effect of maternal and child early life factors on grade repetition among HIV exposed and unexposed children in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Receiving an education is essential for children living in poverty to fulfil their potential. Success in the early years of schooling is important as children who repeat grade one are particularly at risk for future dropout. We examined early life factors associated with grade repetition through logistic regression and explored reasons for repeating a grade through parent report. In 2012–2014 we re-enrolled children aged 7–11 years in rural KwaZulu-Natal who had been part of an early life intervention. Of the 894 children included, 43.1% had repeated a grade, of which 62.9% were boys. Higher maternal education (aOR 0.44; 95% CI 0.2–0.9) and being further along in the birth order (aOR 0.46; 95% CI 0.3–0.9) reduced the odds of grade repetition. In addition, maternal HIV status had the strongest effect on grade repetition for girls (aOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.3–3.8), whereas for boys, it was a fridge in the household (aOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.4–1.0). Issues with school readiness was the most common reason for repeating a grade according to parental report (126/385, 32.7%), while school disruptions was an important reason among HIV-exposed boys. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathways through which HIV affects girls’ educational outcomes and potentially impacts on disrupted schooling for boys. Our results also highlight the importance of preparation for schooling in the early years of life; future research could focus on gaining a better understanding of mechanisms by which to improve early school success, including increased quality of reception year and investigating the protective effect of older siblings.
early life factors, grade repition, HIV exposure, south africa
1-12
Mitchell, J.M.
496f8fc8-9b6e-4dad-aee5-d0b9a8f97d75
Rochat, T.J.
778bc24c-6b9b-463a-af6f-4011e323b2d1
Houle, B.
97a0583b-fc0d-41f4-a0f2-de5f16d84512
Stein, A.
f6a13a48-78d3-471e-97d1-92e39bc109d3
Newell, M.L.
c6ff99dd-c23b-4fef-a846-a221fe2522b3
Bland, R.M.
b6069efb-1311-46be-8ce5-9af5277755c0
Mitchell, J.M.
496f8fc8-9b6e-4dad-aee5-d0b9a8f97d75
Rochat, T.J.
778bc24c-6b9b-463a-af6f-4011e323b2d1
Houle, B.
97a0583b-fc0d-41f4-a0f2-de5f16d84512
Stein, A.
f6a13a48-78d3-471e-97d1-92e39bc109d3
Newell, M.L.
c6ff99dd-c23b-4fef-a846-a221fe2522b3
Bland, R.M.
b6069efb-1311-46be-8ce5-9af5277755c0

Mitchell, J.M., Rochat, T.J., Houle, B., Stein, A., Newell, M.L. and Bland, R.M. (2015) The effect of maternal and child early life factors on grade repetition among HIV exposed and unexposed children in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, 1-12. (doi:10.1017/S2040174415007230).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Receiving an education is essential for children living in poverty to fulfil their potential. Success in the early years of schooling is important as children who repeat grade one are particularly at risk for future dropout. We examined early life factors associated with grade repetition through logistic regression and explored reasons for repeating a grade through parent report. In 2012–2014 we re-enrolled children aged 7–11 years in rural KwaZulu-Natal who had been part of an early life intervention. Of the 894 children included, 43.1% had repeated a grade, of which 62.9% were boys. Higher maternal education (aOR 0.44; 95% CI 0.2–0.9) and being further along in the birth order (aOR 0.46; 95% CI 0.3–0.9) reduced the odds of grade repetition. In addition, maternal HIV status had the strongest effect on grade repetition for girls (aOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.3–3.8), whereas for boys, it was a fridge in the household (aOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.4–1.0). Issues with school readiness was the most common reason for repeating a grade according to parental report (126/385, 32.7%), while school disruptions was an important reason among HIV-exposed boys. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathways through which HIV affects girls’ educational outcomes and potentially impacts on disrupted schooling for boys. Our results also highlight the importance of preparation for schooling in the early years of life; future research could focus on gaining a better understanding of mechanisms by which to improve early school success, including increased quality of reception year and investigating the protective effect of older siblings.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 8 September 2015
e-pub ahead of print date: 9 October 2015
Keywords: early life factors, grade repition, HIV exposure, south africa
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 386054
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/386054
PURE UUID: fbdffd87-7012-4c1a-9c08-e94a791bb19b
ORCID for M.L. Newell: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1074-7699

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Date deposited: 27 Jan 2016 16:15
Last modified: 17 Apr 2021 01:47

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Contributors

Author: J.M. Mitchell
Author: T.J. Rochat
Author: B. Houle
Author: A. Stein
Author: M.L. Newell ORCID iD
Author: R.M. Bland

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