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Discovery of a large 2.4 Ma Plinian eruption of Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, from the marine sediment record

Discovery of a large 2.4 Ma Plinian eruption of Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, from the marine sediment record
Discovery of a large 2.4 Ma Plinian eruption of Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, from the marine sediment record
Large volcanic eruptions are major geohazards, so identifying their frequency in the geologic record is critical for making predictions and hazard assessments. Following the discovery of a thick (18 cm) tephra layer in marine sediments from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1396 between Montserrat and Guadeloupe in the Caribbean Sea, we document here how high-precision Pb isotopes, trace elements, and grain morphological analyses of the tephra can be used, together with volcanological models, to identify a large (Volcanic Explosivity Index ?6) Plinian eruption from Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, at ca. 2.36 Ma. This previously unrecognized eruption is believed to be the largest documented volcanic event in this region since this time. We hypothesize that this large eruption was associated with the final stage in the evolution of an individual volcanic center, which has implications for prediction of geohazards in this setting.
0091-7613
123-126
Palmer, Martin
d2e60e81-5d6e-4ddb-a243-602537286080
Hatter, Stuart
b43a8c1b-8ae3-4764-8238-3dc597aa0d71
Gernon, Thomas M.
658041a0-fdd1-4516-85f4-98895a39235e
Taylor, Rex N.
094be7fd-ef61-4acd-a795-7daba2bc6183
Cassidy, Michael
fc0e9729-9c71-477d-a4e3-39698155e6fc
Johnson, Peter
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Le Friant, Anne
cfb10a7b-5725-4c9e-a3b1-1ad6211c1bb9
Ishizuka, Osamu
1fb98a88-bff7-4200-a09d-92ddf1616058
Palmer, Martin
d2e60e81-5d6e-4ddb-a243-602537286080
Hatter, Stuart
b43a8c1b-8ae3-4764-8238-3dc597aa0d71
Gernon, Thomas M.
658041a0-fdd1-4516-85f4-98895a39235e
Taylor, Rex N.
094be7fd-ef61-4acd-a795-7daba2bc6183
Cassidy, Michael
fc0e9729-9c71-477d-a4e3-39698155e6fc
Johnson, Peter
570fdb72-488f-4f45-ae58-eddb7abf82de
Le Friant, Anne
cfb10a7b-5725-4c9e-a3b1-1ad6211c1bb9
Ishizuka, Osamu
1fb98a88-bff7-4200-a09d-92ddf1616058

Palmer, Martin, Hatter, Stuart, Gernon, Thomas M., Taylor, Rex N., Cassidy, Michael, Johnson, Peter, Le Friant, Anne and Ishizuka, Osamu (2016) Discovery of a large 2.4 Ma Plinian eruption of Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, from the marine sediment record. Geology, 44 (2), 123-126. (doi:10.1130/G37193.1).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Large volcanic eruptions are major geohazards, so identifying their frequency in the geologic record is critical for making predictions and hazard assessments. Following the discovery of a thick (18 cm) tephra layer in marine sediments from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1396 between Montserrat and Guadeloupe in the Caribbean Sea, we document here how high-precision Pb isotopes, trace elements, and grain morphological analyses of the tephra can be used, together with volcanological models, to identify a large (Volcanic Explosivity Index ?6) Plinian eruption from Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, at ca. 2.36 Ma. This previously unrecognized eruption is believed to be the largest documented volcanic event in this region since this time. We hypothesize that this large eruption was associated with the final stage in the evolution of an individual volcanic center, which has implications for prediction of geohazards in this setting.

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Published date: February 2016
Organisations: Geology & Geophysics, Geochemistry

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 386412
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/386412
ISSN: 0091-7613
PURE UUID: 1a6e0da0-dac5-4846-aaba-dd5ebe81e4a7
ORCID for Stuart Hatter: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0760-5275

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Date deposited: 25 Jan 2016 13:33
Last modified: 02 Dec 2019 20:25

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Contributors

Author: Martin Palmer
Author: Stuart Hatter ORCID iD
Author: Rex N. Taylor
Author: Michael Cassidy
Author: Peter Johnson
Author: Anne Le Friant
Author: Osamu Ishizuka

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