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Microfabricated Paul traps for levitating and shuttling of ions and charged particles

Microfabricated Paul traps for levitating and shuttling of ions and charged particles
Microfabricated Paul traps for levitating and shuttling of ions and charged particles
Trapped ions in Paul traps (radio frequency ion traps) are a promising candidate for the realization of a quantum computer. To date, experimental demonstrations of quantum computing and information processing with trapped ions have been limited to small numbers of quantum bits (qubits). The most prominent challenge to realise ion-trap quantum computation is to scale the system and control a large number of trapped ions coherently. Surface-electrode ion trap designs which are amenable to various microfabrication techniques offer a path to achieve this.

In this work, design, fabrication and key operations of two types of surface-electrode ion traps, i.e. a Y-junction trap and a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice trap developed towards scaling ion-trap architectures, are presented. The steps involved in the fabrication of the ion-trap devices included photolithography, wet etch (hydrofluoric acid etch) and dry etch (deep reactive ion and inductively coupled plasma etching), and metal evaporation. The devices were fabricated on SOI substrates with different buried oxide thicknesses (i.e. 5 µm and 10 µm) and different metals for the trap electrodes (i.e. gold and aluminium). An extremely high-breakdown voltage up to 1 kV was measured in vacuum for the SOI-built test devices with a 10 µm-thick buried oxide formed by oxide film-to-oxide film bonding process. This is attributed to the deep V-shaped undercut profile of the buried oxide layer which resulted in a large breakdown path length, and so mitigating surface breakdown effects. Owing to the V-shaped undercut profile, the surface breakdown voltage was improved by 15% for the devices fabricated on SOI substrates with a 10 µm-thick buried oxide.

In the first experiment, the demonstration of ytterbium (174Yb+) ion trapping in the 2D hexagonal lattice trap is achieved with a relatively long lifetime of a laser-cooled ion up to 90 minutes and ≤ 5 minutes without cooling in ultra-high vacuum system. The 2D lattice trap design allows for reliable trapping of 2D ion lattices, rudimentary shuttling between lattice sites and deterministic introducing of defects into the ion lattice. Based on all these abilities, such a 2D lattice trap with the predicted reduction of lattice spacing down to 32 µm can be configured as a versatile architecture for 2D quantum simulations with trapped ions. In the second experiment, microparticle trapping in the 2D lattice trap, performed in air, is achieved with the longest trapping lifetime of 60 minutes. Both gold and aluminium-coated electrodes also lead to comparable trapping performances. Furthermore, the in situ levitation of microparticles is successfully demonstrated at the maximum levitation height of 30 µm. This ability provides additional control on the trapping height which increases the overall functionality of the 2D lattice trap.
Rattanasonti, Hwanjit
e8a7bb93-994e-4d2b-bac4-8ea1b270f954
Rattanasonti, Hwanjit
e8a7bb93-994e-4d2b-bac4-8ea1b270f954
Kraft, Michael
54927621-738f-4d40-af56-a027f686b59f

(2015) Microfabricated Paul traps for levitating and shuttling of ions and charged particles. University of Southampton, Physical Sciences and Engineering, Doctoral Thesis, 312pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Trapped ions in Paul traps (radio frequency ion traps) are a promising candidate for the realization of a quantum computer. To date, experimental demonstrations of quantum computing and information processing with trapped ions have been limited to small numbers of quantum bits (qubits). The most prominent challenge to realise ion-trap quantum computation is to scale the system and control a large number of trapped ions coherently. Surface-electrode ion trap designs which are amenable to various microfabrication techniques offer a path to achieve this.

In this work, design, fabrication and key operations of two types of surface-electrode ion traps, i.e. a Y-junction trap and a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice trap developed towards scaling ion-trap architectures, are presented. The steps involved in the fabrication of the ion-trap devices included photolithography, wet etch (hydrofluoric acid etch) and dry etch (deep reactive ion and inductively coupled plasma etching), and metal evaporation. The devices were fabricated on SOI substrates with different buried oxide thicknesses (i.e. 5 µm and 10 µm) and different metals for the trap electrodes (i.e. gold and aluminium). An extremely high-breakdown voltage up to 1 kV was measured in vacuum for the SOI-built test devices with a 10 µm-thick buried oxide formed by oxide film-to-oxide film bonding process. This is attributed to the deep V-shaped undercut profile of the buried oxide layer which resulted in a large breakdown path length, and so mitigating surface breakdown effects. Owing to the V-shaped undercut profile, the surface breakdown voltage was improved by 15% for the devices fabricated on SOI substrates with a 10 µm-thick buried oxide.

In the first experiment, the demonstration of ytterbium (174Yb+) ion trapping in the 2D hexagonal lattice trap is achieved with a relatively long lifetime of a laser-cooled ion up to 90 minutes and ≤ 5 minutes without cooling in ultra-high vacuum system. The 2D lattice trap design allows for reliable trapping of 2D ion lattices, rudimentary shuttling between lattice sites and deterministic introducing of defects into the ion lattice. Based on all these abilities, such a 2D lattice trap with the predicted reduction of lattice spacing down to 32 µm can be configured as a versatile architecture for 2D quantum simulations with trapped ions. In the second experiment, microparticle trapping in the 2D lattice trap, performed in air, is achieved with the longest trapping lifetime of 60 minutes. Both gold and aluminium-coated electrodes also lead to comparable trapping performances. Furthermore, the in situ levitation of microparticles is successfully demonstrated at the maximum levitation height of 30 µm. This ability provides additional control on the trapping height which increases the overall functionality of the 2D lattice trap.

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Hwanjit Final thesis_PGR submission_041115.pdf - Other
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Published date: January 2015
Organisations: University of Southampton, Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 386658
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/386658
PURE UUID: 1b32a268-ad39-4358-b65a-84be6d622c77

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Date deposited: 11 Feb 2016 15:12
Last modified: 03 Jul 2018 16:31

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