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Composition, geometry, and emplacement dynamics of a large volcanic island landslide offshore Martinique: From volcano flank-collapse to seafloor sediment failure

Composition, geometry, and emplacement dynamics of a large volcanic island landslide offshore Martinique: From volcano flank-collapse to seafloor sediment failure
Composition, geometry, and emplacement dynamics of a large volcanic island landslide offshore Martinique: From volcano flank-collapse to seafloor sediment failure
Landslides are common features in the vicinity of volcanic islands. In this contribution, we investigate landslides emplacement and dynamics around the volcanic island of Martinique based on the first scientific drilling of such deposits. The evolution of the active Montagne Pelée volcano on this island has been marked by three major flank-collapses that removed much of the western flank of the volcano. Subaerial collapse volumes vary from 2 to 25 km3 and debris avalanches flowed into the Grenada Basin. High-resolution seismic data (AGUADOMAR – 1999, CARAVAL – 2002 and GWADASEIS – 2009) is combined with new drill cores that penetrate up to 430 m through the three submarine landslide deposits previously associated to the aerial flank-collapses (Site U1399, Site U1400, Site U1401, IODP Expedition 340, Joides Resolution, March-April 2012). This combined geophysical and core data provide an improved understanding of landslide processes offshore a volcanic island. The integrated analysis shows a large submarine landslide deposit, without debris avalanche deposits coming from the volcano, comprising up to 300 km3 of remobilized seafloor sediment that extends for 70 km away from the coast and covers an area of 2100 km2. Our new data suggest that the aerial debris avalanche deposit enter the sea but stop at the base of submarine flank. We propose a new model dealing with seafloor sediment failures and landslide propagation mechanisms, triggered by volcanic flank-collapse events affecting Montagne Pelée volcano. Newly recognized landslide deposits occur deeper in the stratigraphy, suggesting the recurrence of large-scale mass-wasting processes offshore the island and thus, the necessity to better assess the associated tsunami hazards in the region. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
submarine landslide, volcano flank-collapse, IODP drilling, Martinique, Lesser Antilles
1525-2027
699-724
Brunet, Morgane
1afe6c8a-96dc-44ad-83a0-88b2b26f00e1
Le Friant, Anne
cfb10a7b-5725-4c9e-a3b1-1ad6211c1bb9
Boudon, Georges
e836e5cd-5c6d-45da-bd28-ade2811a2af5
Lafuerza, Sara
f9dc0c05-40a3-4725-925b-8cf089faf01e
Talling, Peter
1cbac5ec-a9f8-4868-94fe-6203f30b47cf
Hornbach, Matthew
3a6645b5-5681-4fd7-8ead-2f29f2f44006
Ishizuka, Osamu
1fb98a88-bff7-4200-a09d-92ddf1616058
Lebas, Elodie
11d2e4c2-6875-4ec7-ac4d-086d918eb9a2
Guyard, Hervé
688a166f-6921-4839-a57d-7c1e18a726f1
Brunet, Morgane
1afe6c8a-96dc-44ad-83a0-88b2b26f00e1
Le Friant, Anne
cfb10a7b-5725-4c9e-a3b1-1ad6211c1bb9
Boudon, Georges
e836e5cd-5c6d-45da-bd28-ade2811a2af5
Lafuerza, Sara
f9dc0c05-40a3-4725-925b-8cf089faf01e
Talling, Peter
1cbac5ec-a9f8-4868-94fe-6203f30b47cf
Hornbach, Matthew
3a6645b5-5681-4fd7-8ead-2f29f2f44006
Ishizuka, Osamu
1fb98a88-bff7-4200-a09d-92ddf1616058
Lebas, Elodie
11d2e4c2-6875-4ec7-ac4d-086d918eb9a2
Guyard, Hervé
688a166f-6921-4839-a57d-7c1e18a726f1

Brunet, Morgane, Le Friant, Anne, Boudon, Georges, Lafuerza, Sara, Talling, Peter, Hornbach, Matthew, Ishizuka, Osamu, Lebas, Elodie and Guyard, Hervé (2016) Composition, geometry, and emplacement dynamics of a large volcanic island landslide offshore Martinique: From volcano flank-collapse to seafloor sediment failure. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 17 (3), 699-724. (doi:10.1002/2015GC006034).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Landslides are common features in the vicinity of volcanic islands. In this contribution, we investigate landslides emplacement and dynamics around the volcanic island of Martinique based on the first scientific drilling of such deposits. The evolution of the active Montagne Pelée volcano on this island has been marked by three major flank-collapses that removed much of the western flank of the volcano. Subaerial collapse volumes vary from 2 to 25 km3 and debris avalanches flowed into the Grenada Basin. High-resolution seismic data (AGUADOMAR – 1999, CARAVAL – 2002 and GWADASEIS – 2009) is combined with new drill cores that penetrate up to 430 m through the three submarine landslide deposits previously associated to the aerial flank-collapses (Site U1399, Site U1400, Site U1401, IODP Expedition 340, Joides Resolution, March-April 2012). This combined geophysical and core data provide an improved understanding of landslide processes offshore a volcanic island. The integrated analysis shows a large submarine landslide deposit, without debris avalanche deposits coming from the volcano, comprising up to 300 km3 of remobilized seafloor sediment that extends for 70 km away from the coast and covers an area of 2100 km2. Our new data suggest that the aerial debris avalanche deposit enter the sea but stop at the base of submarine flank. We propose a new model dealing with seafloor sediment failures and landslide propagation mechanisms, triggered by volcanic flank-collapse events affecting Montagne Pelée volcano. Newly recognized landslide deposits occur deeper in the stratigraphy, suggesting the recurrence of large-scale mass-wasting processes offshore the island and thus, the necessity to better assess the associated tsunami hazards in the region. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Accepted/In Press date: 16 November 2015
Published date: 8 March 2016
Keywords: submarine landslide, volcano flank-collapse, IODP drilling, Martinique, Lesser Antilles
Organisations: Marine Geoscience

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Local EPrints ID: 387348
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/387348
ISSN: 1525-2027
PURE UUID: e3ca1425-ff6e-4555-9e06-0e64536222ce

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Date deposited: 12 Feb 2016 14:36
Last modified: 16 Dec 2019 20:06

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Contributors

Author: Morgane Brunet
Author: Anne Le Friant
Author: Georges Boudon
Author: Sara Lafuerza
Author: Peter Talling
Author: Matthew Hornbach
Author: Osamu Ishizuka
Author: Elodie Lebas
Author: Hervé Guyard

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